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TOPIC: Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World

Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 02 Nov 2014 00:31 #1

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The deadline for Jews to leave Spain under the Alhambra Decree was August 3, 1492, which was, ironically, the Ninth of Av (Tisha B'av) on the Jewish calendar, a day of fasting commemorating the destruction of both Temples in Jerusalem. Columbus and his crew boarded their vessels before midnight, and on the August 3rd sailed before sunrise.

I doubt any American history books teach that Columbus set sail on the last day on which Jews had to leave Spain.

The Alhambra Decree (translation):
Why were the Jews expelled from Spain in 1492

(1) King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, by the grace of God, King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, the Balearic Islands, Seville, Sardinia, Cordoba, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, of the Algarve, Algeciras, Gibraltar, and of the Canary Islands, count and countess of Barcelona and lords of Biscay and Molina, dukes of Athens and Neopatria, counts of Rousillon and Cerdana, marquises of Oristan and of Gociano, to the prince Lord Juan, our very dear and muched love son, and to the other royal children, prelates, dukes, marquees, counts, masters of military orders, priors, grandees, knight commanders, governors of castles and fortified places of our kingdoms and lordships, and to councils, magistrates, mayors, constables, district judges, knights, official squires, and all good men of the noble and loyal city of Burgos and other cities, towns, and villages of its bishopric and of other archbishoprics, bishoprics, dioceses of our kingdom and lordships, and to the residential quarters of the Jews of the said city of Burgos and of all the aforesaid cities, towns, and villages of its bishopric and of the other cities, towns, and villages of our aforementioned kingdoms and lordships, and to all Jews and to all individual Jews of those places, and to barons and women of whatever age they may be, and to all other persons of whatever law, estate, dignity, preeminence, and condition they may be, and to all to whom the matter contained in this charter pertains or may pertain. Salutations and grace.

(2) You know well or ought to know, that whereas we have been informed that in these our kingdoms there were some wicked Christians who Judaized and apostatized from our holy Catholic faith, the great cause of which was interaction between the Jews and these Christians, in the cortes which we held in the city of Toledo in the past year of one thousand, four hundred and eighty, we ordered the separation of the said Jews in all the cities, towns and villages of our kingdoms and lordships and [commanded] that they be given Jewish quarters and separated places where they should live, hoping that by their separation the situation would remedy itself. Furthermore, we procured and gave orders that inquisition should be made in our aforementioned kingships and lordships, which as you know has for twelve years been made and is being made, and by many guilty persons have been discovered, as is very well known, and accordingly we are informed by the inquisitors and by other devout persons, ecclesiastical and secular, that great injury has resulted and still results, since the Christians have engaged in and continue to engage in social interaction and communication they have had means and ways they can to subvert and to steal faithful Christians from our holy Catholic faith and to separate them from it, and to draw them to themselves and subvert them to their own wicked belief and conviction, instructing them in the ceremonies and observances of their law, holding meetings at which they read and teach that which people must hold and believe according to their law, achieving that the Christians and their children be circumcised, and giving them books from which they may read their prayers and declaring to them the fasts that they must keep, and joining with them to read and teach them the history of their law, indicating to them the festivals before they occur, advising them of what in them they are to hold and observe, carrying to them and giving to them from their houses unleavened bread and meats ritually slaughtered, instructing them about the things from which they must refrain, as much in eating as in other things in order to observe their law, and persuading them as much as they can to hold and observe the law of Moses, convincing them that there is no other law or truth except for that one. This proved by many statements and confessions, both from these same Jews and from those who have been perverted and enticed by them, which has redounded to the great injury, detriment, and opprobrium of our holy Catholic faith.

(3) Notwithstanding that we were informed of the great part of this before now and we knew that the true remedy for all these injuries and inconveniences was to prohibit all interaction between the said Jews and Christians and banish them from all our kingdoms, we desired to content ourselves by commanding them to leave all cities, towns, and villages of Andalusia where it appears that they have done the greatest injury, believing that that would be sufficient so that those of other cities, towns, and villages of our kingdoms and lordships would cease to do and commit the aforesaid acts. And since we are informed that neither that step nor the passing of sentence [of condemnation] against the said Jews who have been most guilty of the said crimes and delicts against our holy Catholic faith have been sufficient as a complete remedy to obviate and correct so great an opprobrium and offense to the faith and the Christian religion, because every day it is found and appears that the said Jews increase in continuing their evil and wicked purpose wherever they live and congregate, and so that there will not be any place where they further offend our holy faith, and corrupt those whom God has until now most desired to preserve, as well as those who had fallen but amended and returned to Holy Mother Church, the which according to the weakness of our humanity and by diabolical astuteness and suggestion that continually wages war against us may easily occur unless the principal cause of it be removed, which is to banish the said Jews from our kingdoms. Because whenever any grave and detestable crime is committed by members of any organization or corporation, it is reasonable that such an organization or corporation should be dissolved and annihilated and that the lesser members as well as tile greater and everyone for the others be punished, and that those who perturb the good and honest life of cities and towns and by contagion can injure others should be expelled from those places and even if for lighter causes, that may be injurious to the Republic, how Much more for those greater and most dangerous and most contagious crimes such as this.

(4) Therefore, we, with the counsel and advice of prelates, great noblemen of our kingdoms, and other persons of learning and wisdom of our Council, having taken deliberation about this matter, resolve to order the said Jews and Jewesses of our kingdoms to depart and never to return or come back to them or to any of them. And concerning this we command this our charter to be given, by which we order all Jews and Jewesses of whatever age they may be, who live, reside, and exist in our said kingdoms and lordships, as much those who are natives as those who are not, who by whatever manner or whatever cause have come to live and reside therein, that by the end of the month of July next of the present year, they depart from all of these our said realms and lordships, along with their sons and daughters, menservants and maidservants, Jewish familiars, those who are great as well as the lesser folk, of whatever age they may be, and they shall not dare to return to those places, nor to reside in them, nor to live in any part of them, neither temporarily on the way to somewhere else nor in any other manner, under pain that if they do not perform and comply with this command and should be found in our said kingdom and lordships and should in any manner live in them, they incur the penalty of death and the confiscation of all their possessions by our Chamber of Finance, incurring these penalties by the act itself, without further trial, sentence, or declaration. And we command and forbid that any person or persons of the said kingdoms, of whatever estate, condition, or dignity that they may be, shall dare to receive, protect, defend, nor hold publicly or secretly any Jew or Jewess beyond the date of the end of July and from henceforth forever, in their lands, houses, or in other parts of any of our said kingdoms and lordships, under pain of losing all their possessions, vassals, fortified places, and other inheritances, and beyond this of losing whatever financial grants they hold from us by our Chamber of Finance.

(5) And so that the said Jews and Jewesses during the stated period of time until the end of the said month of July may be better able to dispose of themselves, and their possession, and their estates, for the present we take and receive them under our Security, protection, and royal safeguard, and we secure to them and to their possessions that for the duration of the said time until the said last day of the said month of July they may travel and be safe, they may enter, sell, trade, and alienate all their movable and rooted possessions and dispose of them freely and at their will, and that during the said time, no one shall harm them, nor injure them, no wrong shall be done to them against justice, in their persons or in their possessions, under the penalty which falls on and is incurred by those who violate the royal safeguard. And we likewise give license and faculty to those said Jews and Jewesses that they be able to export their goods and estates out of these our said kingdoms and lordships by sea or land as long as they do not export gold or silver or coined money or other things prohibited by the laws of our kingdoms, excepting merchandise and things that are not prohibited.

(6) And we command all councils, justices, magistrates, knights, squires, officials, and all good men of the said city of Burgos and of the other cities, towns, and villages of our said kingdoms and lordships and all our new vassals, subjects, and natives that they preserve and comply with and cause to be preserved and complied with this our charter and all that is contained in it, and to give and to cause to be given all assistance and favor in its application under penalty of [being at] our mercy and the confiscation of all their possessions and offices by our Chamber of Finance. And because this must be brought to the notice of all, so that no one may pretend ignorance, we command that this our charter be posted in the customary plazas and places of the said city and of the principal cities, towns, and villages of its bishopric as an announcement and as a public document. And no one shall do any damage to it in any manner under penalty of being at our mercy and the deprivation of their offices and the confiscation of their possessions, which will happen to each one who might do this. Moreover, we command the [man] who shows them this our charter that he summon [those who act against the charter] to appear before us at our court wherever we may be, on the day that they are summoned during the fifteen days following the crime under the said penalty, under which we command whichever public scribe who would be called for the purpose of reading this our charter that the signed charter with its seal should be shown to you all so that we may know that our command is carried out.

(7) Given in our city of Granada, the XXXI day of the month of March, the year of the birth of our lord Jesus Christ one thousand four hundred and ninety-two years.

I, the King, I the Queen,

I, Juan de Coloma, secretary of the king and queen our lords, have caused this to be written at their command. 

Registered by Cabrera, Almacan chancellor.

www.sephardicstudies.org/decree.html
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Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 02 Nov 2014 01:10 #2

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Did they all leave?? :ponda:

How many stayed ........ any records?

Did the hate "Jesus Christ" after that one?

Where did they end up which left? ........ I think I got it >>>

Well there must be something freaking wrong with there own; getting kicked out this regularly like it.

109 Locations whence Jews have been Expelled since AD250

This would make it in average every 15.58 years



YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PLACE
250 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Carthage
415 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alexandria
554 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Diocèse of Clermont (France)
561 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Diocèse of Uzès (France)
612 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Visigoth Spain
642 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Visigoth Empire
855 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Italy
876 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Sens
1012 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mainz
1182 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - France
1182 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Germany
1276 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Upper Bavaria
1290 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - England
1306 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - France
1322 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - France (again)
1348 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Switzerland
1349 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Hielbronn (Germany)
1349 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Saxony
1349 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Hungary
1360 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Hungary
1370 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Belgium
1380 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Slovakia
1388 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Strasbourg
1394 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Germany
1394 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - France
1420 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Lyons
1421 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Austria
1424 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Fribourg
1424 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Zurich
1424 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Cologne
1432 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Savoy
1438 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mainz
1439 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Augsburg
1442 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Netherlands
1444 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Netherlands
1446 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Bavaria
1453 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - France
1453 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Breslau
1454 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Wurzburg
1462 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mainz
1483 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mainz
1484 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Warsaw
1485 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Vincenza (Italy)
1492 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Spain
1492 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Italy
1495 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Lithuania
1496 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Naples
1496 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Portugal
1498 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Nuremberg
1498 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Navarre
1510 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Brandenberg
1510 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Prussia
1514 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Strasbourg
1515 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Genoa
1519 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Regensburg
1533 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Naples
1541 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Naples
1542 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Prague & Bohemia
1550 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Genoa
1551 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Bavaria
1555 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Pesaro
1557 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Prague
1559 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Austria
1561 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Prague
1567 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Wurzburg
1569 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Papal States
1571 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Brandenburg
1582 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Netherlands
1582 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Hungary
1593 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Brandenburg, Austria
1597 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Cremona, Pavia & Lodi
1614 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Frankfort
1615 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Worms
1619 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Kiev
1648 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Ukraine
1648 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Poland
1649 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Hamburg
1654 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Little Russia (Beylorus)
1656 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Lithuania
1669 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Oran (North Africa)
1669 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Vienna
1670 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Vienna
1712 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Sandomir
1727 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Russia
1738 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Wurtemburg
1740 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Little Russia (Beylorus)
1744 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Prague, Bohemia
1744 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Slovakia
1744 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Livonia
1745 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Moravia
1753 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Kovad (Lithuania)
1761 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Bordeaux
1772 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Deported to the Pale of Settlement (Poland/Russia)
1775 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Warsaw
1789 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alsace
1804 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Villages in Russia
1808 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Villages & Countrysides (Russia)
1815 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Lbeck & Bremen
1815 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Franconia, Swabia & Bavaria
1820 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Bremen
1843 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Russian Border Austria & Prussia
1862 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Areas in the U.S. under General Grant's Jurisdiction[1]
1866 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Galatz, Romania
1880s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Russia
1891 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Moscow
1919 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Bavaria (foreign born Jews)
1938-45 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Nazi Controlled Areas
1948 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Arab Countries

http://www.biblebelievers.org.au/expelled.htm 




Is this a good sign or bad one?
Maybe there is hope for the American population after all....


Which would mean now it would be the 110th time = 11 >>> is this why the Hebrews don't like the number 11

Gematria:
"Jesus" in the English Ordinal system equals 74 (10+5+19+21+19), which reduces to 11 , which reduces to 2

"Lucifer" in the English Ordinal system equals 74 (12+21+3+9+6+5+18), which reduces to 11 , which reduces to 2
___________________________________

All fits perfectly the number 74 .. 7 vs 4 the fight between the 7 deadly sins & the 4 directional Cross knowledge! 

Pride is excessive belief in one's own abilities, that interferes with the individual's recognition of the grace of God. It has been called the sin from which all others arise. Pride is also known as Vanity.
 
Envy is the desire for others' traits, status, abilities, or situation.
Gluttony is an inordinate desire to consume more than that which one requires.
Lust is an inordinate craving for the pleasures of the body.
Anger is manifested in the individual who spurns love and opts instead for fury. It is also known as Wrath.
Greed is the desire for material wealth or gain, ignoring the realm of the spiritual. It is also called Avarice or Covetousness.
Sloth is the avoidance of physical or spiritual work.
http://www.deadlysins.com/sins/
17) I was not recognized. But I have recognized that the All is being dissolved, both the earthly things and the heavenly.

18) When the soul had overcome the third power, it went upwards and saw the fourth power, which took seven forms.

19) The first form is darkness, the second desire, the third ignorance, the fourth is the excitement of death, the fifth is the kingdom of the flesh, the sixth is the foolish wisdom of flesh, the seventh is the wrathful wisdom. These are the seven powers of wrath.
http://library/marygosp.htm 


Seven appeared in chaos, androgynous. They have their masculine names and their feminine names.
  • The feminine name is Pronoia (Forethought) Sambathas, which is 'week'.
  • And his son is called Yao: his feminine name is Lordship.
  • Sabaoth: his feminine name is Deity.
  • Adonaios: his feminine name is Kingship.
  • Elaios: his feminine name is Jealousy.
  • Oraios: his feminine name is Wealth.
  • And Astaphaios: his feminine name is Sophia (Wisdom).
  • These are the seven forces of the seven heavens of chaos. And they were born androgynous, consistent with the immortal pattern that existed before them, according to the wish of Pistis: so that the likeness of what had existed since the beginning might reign to the end. You will find the effect of these names and the force of the male entities in the Archangelic (Book) of the Prophet Moses, and the names of the female entities in the first Book of Noraia.
    On the Origin of the World 
         

    Properties of the number 11
    Symbolism

    Symbol of the interior fight, the rebellion and the mislaying which results from it. But it also represents someone who comes out victorious of the tests with the acquired knowledge.

    Represent the transgression of the law because it exceeds of one the number of ten, which is the one of the Decalogue. For this fact, it represents the sin according to saint Augustin. The psalm 11 (Vulgate numbering) asks effectively the punishment of the wicked. The theoretical speculations on this number confirm this symbolism. The sum of numbers 1 to 11 is 66, which multiplying eleven by the number symbol of the evil, the diabolic 6; by the addition of the two digits which compose it as by its reading in Roman number, II, it reminds the 2, number of the division and the corruption.

    Number expressing more than the human sin, it is the sin in general or cosmic, according to R. Allendy.

    According to Peignot, it is the force of witnesses and the Word. Eleven is therefore the number of the martyrdom, the testimony and the prophecy.

    Represent the union of the microcosm and the macrocosm - 5 + 6.

    Number of the knowledge of God, according to Arabs, this one passing by 11 steps.

    Number in relation to the mysteries of the fruitfulness in the African esoteric traditions.

    Number representing the individual initiative but exercising without relationship to the cosmic harmony, consequently of a rather unfavorable nature.

    In China, number representing the way (the Tao) of the sky and the earth. It is the number of the central union of the sky, 6, and of the earth, 5.

    Bad number according to the Hebrews. This is why there would not exist any name having eleven letters in Hebrew.
    http://www.ridingthebeast.com/numbers/nu11.php 

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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 02 Nov 2014 01:20 #3

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    We'll get to that. I wanted to discuss Colombus being a crypto-Jew funded by Italian Jews from Genoa first.

    The Iberian Peninsula had Europe's largest Jewish community. About 300,000. Most left to the New World as Marranos. "Conversos" remained in Spain but Marranos also went into other Jewish centres in Europe, notably Amsterdam and then London.
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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 02 Nov 2014 04:05 #4

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    As Arnold Toynbee wrote:
    There is every reason to believe that in Spain and Portugal today there is a strong tincture of the blood of these Jewish converts in Iberian veins, especially in the upper and middle classes. Yet the most acute psychoanalyst would find it difficult, if samples of living upper- and middle-class Spanish and Portuguese were presented to him, to detect who had Jewish ancestors.
    The process worked both ways.

    After the massacres of 1391 and 1411 which swept the Peninsula, over 100000 Jews at a moderate estimate - accepted baptism. But a considerable proportion of them continued to practice Judaism in secret. These crypto-Jews, the Marranos, prospered, rose to high positions at court and in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, and intermarried with the aristocracy. After the expulsion of all unrepentant Jews from Spain (1492) and Portugal (1497) the Marranos were regarded with increasing suspicion; many were burned by the Inquisition, the majority emigrated in the sixteenth century to the countries around the Mediterranean, to Holland, England and France.

    Once in safety, they openly reverted to their faith and, together with the 1492-7 expellees, founded the new Sephardic communities in these countries. Thus Toynbee’s remark about the hybrid ancestry of the upper strata of society in Spain also applies, mutatis mutandis, to the Sephardic communities of Western Europe.
    http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/esp_sociopol_khazar01_08jkj.htm 


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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 02 Nov 2014 04:35 #5

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    I appreciate the effort with the posts Mario, but can we keep it the OP please? we're in 1492.

    Jews can be hysterically obvious. Even the Jewish Virtual Library initially plays down then modestly gloats of the Jews involved in Colombus' voyage.
    It was Christopher Columbus, the "world-unveiling Genoese" himself, who first linked the Jews and the New World. In his letter to the king and queen ofSpain which opens the Journal of the First Voyage,Columbus writes:

    So after having expelled the Jews from your dominions, Your Highnesses, in the same month of January, ordered me to proceed with sufficient armament to the said region of India.

    Actually, Columbus set sail on August 3, 1492, a day after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain began. Much has been written of Columbus's purported Jewish origins and of Jews who accompanied him on his first voyage. It is certain only that the expedition's interpreter, Luis de Torres, was born a Jew but had converted shortly before the expedition set sail; that two "New Christians," Luis de Santangel and Gabriel Sanchez, had a hand in the financing; and that two Jews, Abraham Zacuto and Joseph Vecinho, provided technical expertise that helped Columbus navigate the "Ocean Sea."

    Abraham Zacuto (c. 1452-1515), a historian and astronomer, who wrote his major astronomical work, Ha-Hibur ha-Gadol, in Hebrew under the patronage of the bishop of Salamanca, served as court astronomer to kings John II and Manuel I ofPortugal, where he took refuge after the expulsion from Spain. Zacuto prepared the charts used by Vasco da Gama on his successful journey to India, but his high position and contribution to Portuguese imperial expansion availed him little when, in 1497, the Jews in Portugal were forced to convert, and he was forced once again to flee. In Tunis, in 1504, Zacuto completed his historical narrative, Sefer ha-Yuhasin, in which he claimed: "My astronomical charts circulate throughout all the Christian and even Muslim lands."
    www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/loc/loc12a.html

    Columbus and the Jews
    “In fourteen hundred and ninety two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue; and his interpreter was a Jew whose name was Lou and that is true.”

    Indeed it is true. Luis de Torres was not the only Jew who sailed with Columbus on the 3rd of August that year. Columbus’ navigator and his doctor were also Jews. All three and two more were Jews who underwent formal “conversion” to Christianity one day before the voyage began but were nevertheless viewed as Jews both by other Jews and by the Spanish Christians, who called Jews converted to Christianity “marranos”, meaning swine.

    Columbus included de Torres because de Torres spoke Hebrew. Columbus evidently believed or wanted to believe that he would meet Hebrew speaking Jews on reaching the other side of the world. Columbus believed he would find the “ten lost tribes of Israel” there and hence thought he would need a Hebrew speaker. It should be noted that the voyage of Columbus was financed by two Jews, i.e. Luis de Santangelo, chancellor of the royal household of king Ferdinand and queen Isabella, and Gabriel Sanchez, treasurer of Aragon, both “conversos”, of course.

    When de Torres had landed on Hispanola he saw a bird which he thought was a peacock and named it TUKI, the Hebrew word for that animal. We therefore call it turkey. Today Hispanola is divided into French speaking Haiti and the Spanish speaking Dominican Republic.

    De Torres eventually settled in Cuba and therefore became the first European settler of the New World, except for the Norwegians who had come to Newfoundland in 1000 only to disappear when their colony was abandoned for unknown reasons.

    As we have just seen, Columbus believed the legend of the “lost ten tribes”. This was believed by many people and is still current, although we know now that the ten tribes dragged into Babylonian captivity migrated all over Asia and left their culture with  numerous civilizations on that continent all the way to Japan. There are Asian peoples, mostly Moslems, who light candles on Friday night but do not know why this custom was taught them by their parents and ancestors. There is even a group of Japanese who drive a goat over a cliff once a year in a ceremony resembling that which we encounter in the Yom Kippur service.

    There is a good deal of speculation based on evidence that Columbus may himself have been the grandson of Jews. Here are some facts:

    Although born in the Italian city of Genoa, Columbus’ first language was Castilian Spanish. Many Jews went to Genoa after being forced out of Castile one hundred years before Columbus was born (the word “jeans” is derived from that city name as the Genoese sailors used to make trousers from sail cloth).Columbus wrote two small marks on the top of every letter he wrote. These marks resemble the two marks orthodox Jews still use in their letters. The two abbreviations come from the Hebrew words besiyata d’ishmaya, meaning “with God’s help” in Aramaic.Columbus wrote a great deal about Zion.He brought five Jews on his voyage, including his translator, navigator, doctor, surgeon and astronomer.On the very day that Columbus sailed for the New World, the Jews who had been expelled from Spain sailed from the port of Palos as well. Columbus' diary begins with these words: “In the same month in which their Majesties issued the edict that all Jews should be driven out of the kingdom and its territories, in the same month, they gave me the order to undertake with sufficient men my expedition of discovery of the Indies.”
    jbuff.com/c100903.htm
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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 02 Nov 2014 04:56 #6

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    Columbus was not  financed by the Catholic kings Fernando II de Aragón and Isabel I de Castilla, but by the wealthy Jewish community (Marranos) who remained in Spain.

    Christopher Columbus made a total of four trips to the Americas during 1492-1504. It is believed that during these trips to the Caribbean Islands and Central and South America, hundreds and thousands of Jews disembarked and began lives in the new world.

    The United States was first colonized by Jews from Spain in Florida (Spanish word meaning “Feast of Flowers”) and other parts of the U.S. eastern coastline.
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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 02 Nov 2014 05:01 #7

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    First, let’s examine the evidence which indicates Columbus was a Jew. Walter McEntire, author of Was Christopher Columbus a Jew,quotes a newspaper article which asked, “Was Columbus a Jew?” The article reads: “...‘to the best of our knowledge the blood that flowed in Columbus’ veins was three-quarters Jewish.’ ” McEntire then mentions that the editor adds: “...that ‘it wasn’t very safe in those days in Spain to call yourself a Jew, and Columbus knew that, and called himself ‘a Genoese navigator,’ without saying much about his origin’; that ‘investigation shows that his mother came of a well known Jewish family, the Ponti Rossi, and that the name ‘Colón,’ which is the real name of Columbus, was that of Jews.’ ”3 McEntire continues: “In two other papers we found editors saying that ‘as you honor Columbus, bear in mind the fact that in all probability three-quarters, if not all, of his blood was Jewish.’ ”4
    McEntire points out that Don Garcia discovered: “...that the name of Columbus’ mother was Susanna [Shoshana in Hebrew, hnvwv], (a Jewish name)....”5 He (Garcia) also found: “...in the archives of Pontevedra, a record setting forth that in the fifteenth century, there lived in that city, a family by the name of Colon, ‘several members of which bore the same forenames as are to be found among the Colombos of Genoa, the kinsmen of Christopher Columbus. In 1434 and 1437, there was at Pontevedra a Domingo Colon; in 1438 a Bartolomé Colon; in 1496 a Cristobo Colon; in 1434 a Blanca Colon. As we shall see, Domenico was the name of Columbus’ father; Bartolomeo that of his younger brother; and Bianchinetta was the name of Columbus’ sister.”6 He also notes: “...the devoted friends of Columbus, Juan Cabrero, Luis de Santangel, Gabriel Sanchez, and Alfonso de la Caballeria, [were] all men of Jewish extraction.”

    The Jerusalem Times/Jewish Press article entitled, “Why Should Catholic Church Honor Queen Isabella?” acknowledges that Columbus was Jewish, while rightly criticizing the fact that the Catholic Church “wouldn’t admit that Columbus was a Jew!” Arnold Fine notes: “...Colon, who changed his name to Columbus....was a Cohen. The name Colon, is the equivalent of Cohen....The fact remains that Columbus was a Jew.”8
    J. R. Church, minister of the Southwest Radio Church, mentioned in a 1991 radio broadcast: “Columbus used the Jewish calendar in his logs and the Hebrew alphabet for numbers in some cases.”9
    In a taped message, “Why We Honor the Jews,” the famous pro-Zionist American television minister, John Hagee, said: “Consider America’s debt to the Jewish people—would you be shocked to know that America was discovered by a Jewish sailor named Christopher Columbus? That’s a historic fact.”10
    www.ramsheadpress.com/messiah/ch16.html
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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 02 Nov 2014 07:42 #8

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    Great thread, Orangeaid!
    I was always interested in this subject and never failed to read articles in the msm, but nothing much has changed since long.


    In Mallorca there is a place called "Son Colom de Sa Cova" and the old people there always claimed that this is the real birth place of this obscure person.

    I also want to add that we should by no means forget that during the last years it came to light, according to their msm, which only publish what was allegedly said by their "scientists", that (sarcasmon) everything great in this world was invariably invented and discovered by them (sarcasmoff) :cool: and they even tried to convince the gullible among the "truthers" that Hitler was a Rothschild, so everything about a man called "CHRISTopher Columbus" is still obscured by tptb since centuries, most probably for very good reasons.




    Goggle-eyes vs Nordic features - we can't trust artists.




    The DNA Age

    Seeking Columbus’s Origins, With a Swab

    8 October 2007

    When schoolchildren turn to the chapter on Christopher Columbus’s humble origins as the son of a weaver in Genoa, they are not generally told that he might instead have been born out of wedlock to a Portuguese prince. Or that he might have been a Jew whose parents converted to escape the Spanish Inquisition. Or a rebel in the medieval kingdom of Catalonia.

    Yet with little evidence to support them, multiple theories of Columbus’s early years have long found devoted proponents among those who would claim alternative bragging rights to the explorer. And now, five centuries after he opened the door to the New World, Columbus’s revisionist biographers have found a new hope for vindication.

    The Age of Discovery has discovered DNA.

    In 2004, a Spanish geneticist, Dr. Jose A. Lorente, extracted genetic material from a cache of Columbus’s bones in Seville to settle a dispute about where he was buried. Ever since, he has been beset by amateur historians, government officials and self-styled Columbus relatives of multiple nationalities clamoring for a genetic retelling of the standard textbook tale.

    Even adherents of the Italian orthodoxy concede that little is known about the provenance of the Great Navigator, who seems to have purposely obscured his past. But contenders for his legacy have no compunction about prospecting for his secrets in the cells he took to his grave. And the arrival on Oct. 8 of another anniversary of Columbus’s first landfall in the Bahamas has only sharpened their appetite for a genetic verdict, preferably in their own favor.

    A Genoese Cristoforo Colombo almost certainly did exist. Archives record his birth and early life. But there is little to tie that man to the one who crossed the Atlantic in 1492. Snippets from Columbus’s life point all around the southern European coast. He kept books in Catalan and his handwriting has, according to some, a Catalonian flair. He married a Portuguese noblewoman. He wrote in Castilian. He decorated his letters with a Hebrew cartouche.

    Since it seems now that the best bet for deducing Columbus’s true hometown is to look for a genetic match in places where he might have lived, hundreds of Spaniards, Italians, and even a few Frenchmen have happily swabbed their cheeks to supply cells for comparison.

    “You would be proud to know that the man that goes to America the first time was Catalan,” said Jordi Colom, 51, an executive at a local television station whose saliva sample will help test the contention that Columbus was born in Catalonia, the once-independent eastern region of modern Spain that still fosters its own language, culture and designs on independence.

    No chance, said Renato Colombo, 62, a retired Italian engineer who proffered his DNA to reassert his nation’s hold on the status quo. “It has never been in doubt that he was from Liguria,” the region in northwest Italy of which Genoa is the capital, he insisted. “In his personality, there are the characteristics of the Genoese, mostly represented by his project and his visceral attachment to money and his determination.”

    Mr. Colom and Mr. Colombo are both “Columbus” in their native tongues. And along with their names, each inherited from his father a Y chromosome — a sliver of DNA passed exclusively from father to son — which would have been virtually unchanged since the 15th century. A Columbus match to either man’s Y chromosome would tie him to that paternal line’s Italian or Catalonian home.

    “What I want to write is the final book on Columbus, and I will not be able to do it without science to settle this,” said Francesc Albardaner, who was seduced by the possibility that DNA — a tool whose answers are treated as indisputable fact in courtrooms and on TV shows — would endorse his deeply held belief in the Catalonian Columbus.

    Mr. Albardaner, a Barcelona architect, took more than three months off work, called 2,000 Coloms and persuaded 225 of them to scrape their cheeks at his Center for Columbus Studies in Barcelona. The swabs along with 100 Colombos collected in Italy are being analyzed by Dr. Lorente at the University of Granada and scientists in Rome.

    A Colom match could overturn conventional wisdom about the nationality, class, religion, and motives of the man who began the age of American colonization. On the other hand, an association with Colombo DNA would cement Italy’s national pride in a man who remains a hero to many, complaints from American Indians he slaughtered, Africans he enslaved and Vikings who got there first notwithstanding.

    But some petitioners think it is a waste of time to scour the phone book for Columbus’s long-lost kin. Insisting that they know who Columbus’s father really was, they are asking Dr. Lorente to perform a 500-year postdated paternity test. The government council president of Majorca, for instance, has paid him to examine the exhumed remains of Prince Carlos of Viana, the one-time heir to the Catalonian crown who reportedly fathered a son with a woman on the island whose last name was Colom.

    The vials of royal DNA in Dr. Lorente’s freezer also include contributions from two living members of the now deposed Portuguese royal line: those of the Duke of Bragança and the Count of Ribeira Grande who argue that Columbus was a member of their family — the product of an extramarital affair involving a Portuguese prince.

    “This is the true story, forget the Italians, forget the Spanish,” said Count Jose Ribeira, 47, a real estate developer in Lisbon who attended the dedication of a new Columbus monument last year in the Portuguese town of Cuba that claims to be Columbus’s birthplace. If it is, all three samples should contain the same Portuguese genetic imprint.

    But this year, anyway, the Columbus Day parade in New York will feature Maserati sports cars, flag throwers from Siena and Lidia Bastianich, the Italian cooking show host, as grand marshal.

    Those who had hoped DNA would crash the Italian party expected a genetic pronouncement from the scientists on the 500th anniversary of Columbus’s death last May. Or last Columbus Day. Surely by this one. After all those centuries in a crypt, however, a mere trace of DNA was all that could be extracted from Columbus’s bones, and Dr. Lorente has said he is loath to use it indiscriminately.

    To make things even tougher, he has found that Catalonian Coloms and Genoese Colombos are so closely related it is hard to distinguish them with the standard Y-chromosome tests. So he is searching for more subtle differences that would allow him to link Columbus to a single lineage.

    “My heart,” Mr. Albardaner said, “will not endure so many delays.”

    Others have accused Dr. Lorente of nationalist bias, of covering up results that suggest Columbus was a Jew and of withholding a historical treasure from the Western world.

    “Will Lorente continue to hide what the scientists know concerning Columbus’s DNA?” asked Peter Dickson, a retired C.I.A. analyst whose self-published book on Columbus argues that he was part French, part Italian, part Spanish and part Jewish, in an e-mail message to fellow Columbus buffs. “Will he remain silent on Columbus Day once again?”

    Dr. Lorente says he will. And in the absence of data, rumors are flying.

    Olga Rickards, a Lorente collaborator at Tor Vergata University in Rome, has been quoted as saying that she “wouldn’t bet on Columbus being Spanish.” A graduate student of Dr. Lorente’s who had studied the Colombo DNA led Italian newspapers to believe Columbus was from Lombardy, north of Genoa, although she had apparently never seen Columbus’s DNA. And Nito Verdera, a journalist from the Balearic island of Ibiza, who says the explorer was a Catalan-speaking Ibizan crypto-Jew, cited leaks from Dr. Lorente’s team that link Columbus to North Africa.

    “I’m very sorry about the great expectation among some historians that they all want the DNA to confirm their hypothesis,” Dr. Lorente said. “But science needs its time and has its pace.”

    If Columbus was an adopted name, as some scholars believe, tests of Coloms and Colombos will have been in vain. Moreover, with dozens of generations separating all those Coloms, Colombos, princes and counts from Columbus’s time, a long-hidden adulterous liaison could have severed the Y-chromosome-and-surname link.

    Even with a match questions will remain. What if Coloms moved to Genoa or Colombos to Barcelona? Today’s distinct regional identities may not be reflected in the genetic code of the earlier era.

    Mr. Albardaner still brings Columbus novices to the Historic Archive of Protocols in Barcelona, where they can hold a yellowed note from the 15th century filled with the calligraphic scrawl of the man he believes stumbled upon the Caribbean while looking for a western route to India.

    He is less sure now that there will be a precise answer to who Columbus was or where he was from, but he is still hoping it will come from the DNA.

    “Maybe it will say he’s from Catalonia. Maybe it will be a complete lockout. Maybe we find his DNA is completely dissimilar to any known DNA, he comes from Mars, well, perfect, O.K.”

    “Then,” he said, “I stop.”

    www.nytimes.com/2007/10/08/us/08columbus.html




    Christopher Columbus writings prove he was Spanish, claims study

    Italy, France, Portugal and even Scotland are among those who have claimed Christopher Columbus as their own over the years, citing a range of spurious links.



    14 Oct 2009

    But American researchers say the mystery over the explorer's true origins has finally been solved after a thorough investigation of his writings.

    A study of the language used in the official records and letters of the Great Navigator apparently proves he hailed from the Kingdom of Aragon in northeastern Spain and his mother tongue was Catalan.

    Since his death in 1506 debate has raged over the true nationality of the man credited with discovering the Americas.

    It was widely believed that he was the son of a weaver born in the Italian port of Genoa, but over the centuries he has been claimed as a native son of Greece, Catalonia, Portugal, Corsica, France and even Poland.

    According to one theory, he may have been Jewish and another more recent account traced his origins to Scotland.

    But a linguistic professor at Georgetown University in Washington has published new findings following an exhaustive study of documents written in his hand.

    Estelle Irizarry studied his language and grammar and concluded that Columbus was a Catalan speaking man from the Kingdom of Aragon, an inland region of north-eastern Spain at the foot of the Pyrenees.

    The findings published this month in a new book "The DNA of the writings of Columbus" explain that although he wrote in Castilian it was clearly not his first language and his origins can be pinpointed to the Aragon region because of the grammar and the way he constructed sentences.

    "He didn't express him correctly in any written language," said the professor. "His Spanish was notoriously incorrect yet at the same time efficient, poetic and eloquent."

    A scientific project launched three years ago to discover his true origins using DNA comparisons between his family and possible descendants has so far failed to provide conclusive results.

    A team of scientists took samples from the tomb of Columbus in Seville and from bones belonging to his brother and son and compared them to the genetic make-up of hundreds of people living across Europe with surnames believed to be modern day variants of Columbus.

    Swabs were taken from the cheeks of Colom's in Catalonia, Colombo's in Italy and even members of the deposed Portuguese royal family, who argue that Columbus was the product of an extramarital affair involving a Portuguese prince.

    Scientists had hoped to establish a common ancestor using standard Y-chromosome tests but they have yet to find a link.

    They study may be in vain, however, as there is evidence to suggest that Columbus, who first crossed the Atlantic in 1492, may have adopted his surname later in life to disguise his true origins.

    One theory claims that he once worked for a pirate called Vincenzo Columbus, and adopted that name in order not to embarrass his relations with his new profession.

    Columbus himself, when asked about his origins, used to shrug off the questions. "Vine de nada" – "I came from nothing", he said.

    www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/spain/6326698/Christopher-Columbus-writings-prove-he-was-Spanish-claims-study.html
    "The truth must be repeated over and over again,
    because error is repeatedly preached among us, not
    only by individuals, but by the masses. In periodicals
    and cyclopaedias, in schools and universities; every-
    where, in fact, error prevails, and is quite easy in the
    feeling that it has a decided majority on its side."

    ~ J. W. v. Goethe

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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 02 Nov 2014 13:05 #9

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    Columbus Day: American Holocaust and Slave Trader

    ''n 1492 Columbus' ships appeared off the coast of San Salvador.
    The Taino Indians greeted Columbus with unimaginable hospitality.
    Columbus reported to his queen:
    '' "So tractable, so peaceable, are these people, that I swear to your Majesties there is not in
    the world a better nation.
    They love their neighbors as themselves, and their discourse is ever sweet and gentle, and
    accompanied with a smile; and though it is true that they are naked, yet their manners are
    decorous and praiseworthy."

    Columbus soon lost sight of the generosity and kindness of the Taino people.

    ''On April 17, 1492, before his first voyage to the Americas, Columbus negotiated a business contract
    with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, entitling him to 10% of all profits.

    In this contract, the Spanish sovereigns agreed:
    ''"that of all and every kind of merchandise, whether pearls, precious stones, gold, silver, spices, and other
    objects and merchandise whatsoever, of whatever kind, name and sort, which may be bought, bartered,
    discovered, acquired and obtained within the limits of the said Admiralty, Your Highnesses grant from
    now henceforth to the said Don Cristóbal [Christopher Columbus] ... the tenth part of the whole, after
    deducting all the expenses which may be incurred therein." [1]''

    ''Beyond profits, Columbus sought to convert native people to Catholicism. In the prologue to
    his journal of the first voyage, Columbus wrote to Ferdinand and Isabella:

    "YOUR HIGHNESSES, as Catholic Christians and Princes who love the holy Christian faith, and the
    propagation of it, and who are enemies to the sect of Mahoma [Islam] and to all idolatries and heresies,
    resolved to send me, Cristóbal Colon, to the said parts of India to see the said princes ... with a view
    that they might be converted to our holy faith … Thus, after having turned out all the Jews from all your
    kingdoms and lordships ... your Highnesses gave orders to me that with a sufficient fleet I should go to the said
    parts of India .... I shall forget sleep, and shall work at the business of navigation, so that the service is performed." [3]''

    The Enslavement of Native People

    ''On October 12, 1492 (the first day he encountered the native people of the Americas), Columbus wrote
    in his journal:

    "They should be good servants .... I, our Lord being pleased, will take hence, at the time of my departure,
    six natives for your Highnesses."
    These captives were later paraded through the streets of Barcelona and
    Seville when Columbus returned to Spain. [4]

    From his very first contact with native people, Columbus had their domination in mind. For example, on
    October 14, 1492, Columbus wrote in his journal, "with fifty men they can all be subjugated and made to do what
    is required of them." [5] These were not mere words: after his second voyage, Columbus sent back a consignment
    of natives to be sold as slaves. [6]


    Pope Gives the Americas to Spain

    Following Columbus' discovery, Pope Alexander VI issued a May 4, 1493, papal bull granting official
    ownership of the New World
    to Ferdinand and Isabella. To these monarchs, the Pope declared:

    "We of our own motion, and not at your solicitation, do give, concede, and assign for ever to you and your
    successors, all the islands, and main lands, discovered; and which may hereafter, be discovered, towards
    the west and south; whether they be situated towards India, or towards any other part whatsoever, and give
    you absolute power in them." [9]''


    ''Nonetheless, the Pope's declaration ultimately had dire consequences for native inhabitants of the Americas.
    Beginning in 1514 Spanish conquerors adopted "the Requirement," an ultimatum in which Indians were
    forced to accept "the Church as the Ruler and Superior of the whole world" or face persecution. If Indians
    did not immediately comply, the Requirement warned them:

    "We shall take you and your wives and your children, and shall make slaves of them, and as such shall sell
    and dispose of them as their Highnesses may command; and we shall take away your goods, and shall do
    all the harm and damage that we can." [11]''

    Columbus Day: A National Holiday

    Since 1971 Columbus Day has been celebrated in the U.S. as federal holiday, and on October 9, 2002,
    President George W. Bush issued a presidential proclamation celebrating "Columbus' bold expedition
    [and] pioneering achievements," directing that "the flag of the United States be displayed on all public
    buildings on the appointed day in honor of Christopher Columbus." [13]''

    ''The Holocaust of Columbus alone killed four million people on San Salvador in four years.
    The genocide did not stop after this first four million people; they were only the beginning. ''

    ''Therefore, on one hand we may see a thin rational for how the US continues
    to celebrate this process linked to Columbus and his 'discoveries' but in
    reviewing the realities and results upon humanity it seems remarkable that we can still 'celebrate'
    these historical events and atrocities.
    This is the event celebrated each year on Columbus Day. The United States honors only two men
    with federal holidays bearing their names. In January we commemorate the birth of Martin Luther King, Jr.,
    who struggled to lift the blinders of racial prejudice and to cut the remaining bonds of slavery in America.
    In October, we honor Christopher Columbus, who opened the Atlantic slave trade and launched one of the
    greatest waves of genocide known in history. (C)

    www.americanindiansource.com/columbusday.html

    Columbus’ Men Were Rapists and Murderers

    ''This is supported by a reported close friend of Columbus, Michele de Cuneo who wrote the
    first disturbing account of a relation between himself and a Native female gift given to him by Columbus.

    “While I was in the boat I captured a very beautiful Carib woman, whom the said Lord Admiral gave to me,
    and with whom, having taken her into my cabin, she being naked according to their custom, I conceived
    desire to take pleasure. I wanted to put my desire into execution but she did not want it and treated me with
    her finger nails in such a manner that I wished I had never begun. But seeing that (to tell you the end of it all),
    I took a rope and thrashed her well, for which she raised such unheard of screams that you would not have
    believed your ears. Finally we came to an agreement in such manner that I can tell you that she seemed to
    have been brought up in a school of harlots.”


    ''Several accounts of cruelty and murder include Spaniards testing the sharpness of blades on Native people
    by cutting them in half, beheading them in contests and throwing Natives into vats of boiling soap.
    There are also accounts of suckling infants being lifted from their mother’s breasts by Spaniards,
    only to be dashed headfirst into large rocks.''

    Columbus Enslaved the Native People for Gold

    Because Columbus reported a plethora of Natives for slaves, rivers of gold and fertile pastures to Queen Isabella
    and King Ferdinand, Columbus was given 17 ships and more than 1,200 men on his next expedition.
    However, Columbus had to deliver. In the next few years, Columbus was desperate to fulfill those promises
    hundreds of Native slaves died on their way back to Spain and gold was not as bountiful as expected.''

    Columbus Provided Native Sex Slaves to His Men

    ''In addition to putting the Natives to work as slaves in his gold mines, Columbus also sold sex slaves to his men
    some as young as 9. Columbus and his men also raided villages for sex and sport.
    In the year 1500, Columbus wrote: “A hundred castellanoes are as easily obtained for a woman as for a farm,
    and it is very general and there are plenty of dealers who go about looking for girls; those from nine to ten
    are now in demand.”

    Columbus’ Men Used Native People as Dog Food

    ''In the early years of Columbus’ conquests there were butcher shops throughout the Caribbean where
    Indian bodies were sold as dog food. There was also a practice known as the montería infernal, the infernal chase,
    or manhunt, in which Indians were hunted by war-dogs.''

    These dogs—who also wore armor and had been fed human flesh,
    were a fierce match for the Indians. Live babies were also fed to these war dogs as sport,
    sometimes in front of horrified parents.


    Columbus Returned to Spain in Shackles—But Was Pardoned

    ''After a multitude of complaints against Columbus about his mismanagement of the island of Hispaniola,
    a royal commissioner arrested Columbus in 1500 and brought him back to Spain in chains.
    Though he was stripped of his governor title, he was pardoned by King Ferdinand, who then subsidized
    a fourth voyage.''
    indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2013/10/14/8-myths-and-atrocities-about-christopher-columbus-and-columbus-day-151653

    www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinncol1.html
    www.dickshovel.com/colum.html

    www.indians.org/welker/byecolum.htm







    This kind of disgusting and disrespectful behaviour is condoned here

    ORANGEAID verbal abuse

    ''Cinta is a whore.
    I don't change one word I've said.''

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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 02 Nov 2014 13:11 #10

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    His signature and his flag

    More pictures and documents commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Christopher_Columbus
    .
    "The truth must be repeated over and over again,
    because error is repeatedly preached among us, not
    only by individuals, but by the masses. In periodicals
    and cyclopaedias, in schools and universities; every-
    where, in fact, error prevails, and is quite easy in the
    feeling that it has a decided majority on its side."

    ~ J. W. v. Goethe

    Johannes Lang "The Hollow World Theory" Blog
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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 02 Nov 2014 13:37 #11

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    “Crypto-Jews and the Spanish Inquisition in the New World”Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

    In 1481, the Catholic Monarchs, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, established the Holy Office of the Inquisition. The Inquisition was established to create a total Catholic state; that is, all persons living in Spain were required to be Catholics. Those who were not Catholics, particularly Jews, were forced to convert or flee into exile to other countries.

    The Inquisition served to destroy Spain's middle class, many of “Night Procession of the Penitentes,” William Penhallow Henderson (Artist)whom were Jewish, that was growing in power. Those Jews who converted to Catholicism and were baptized were called conversos, or New Christians. Some, along with their descendants, faithfully practiced Christianity. Others maintained covert ties to Jewish communities and practiced Judaism in secret. Officials of the Inquisition set out to find these hidden Jews and condemn them for judaizing, or practicing Judaism.

    Some Jews concealed their Jewish identity, called themselves Christians, and journeyed to the New World as soldiers and explorers. A group of scholars believe that the very first explorers, including Cristóbal Colon (Christopher Columbus) and some of his crew members, came from Jewish family backgrounds. These New Christians, or crypto-Jews, set up ranches, administered the mining towns, ran businesses, and fully entered into the life of the Spanish colonies. Some continued to hide their Jewish backgrounds and practices; others openly practiced Judaism until officials of the Inquisition arrived in New Spain.

    Officials of the Inquisition arrested people for judaizing. Some people were questioned and imprisoned, some had their lands and possessions confiscated; others were sent back to Spain for trials. Some were able to prove their innocence or buy their safety. Others, such as Luis de Carvajal y de la Cueva who was at one time among the wealthiest and most powerful men in New Spain, were convicted and killed.

    Gaspar Castaño de Sosa, who led an expedition into New Mexico, had been a close associate of Luis de Carvajal. De Sosa was also accused of judaizing. It is believed that some of the soldiers who joined expeditions to the north into New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona were crypto-Jews trying to put great distances between themselves and the Inquisition authorities.

    Those who were accused of being crypto-Jews throughout New Spain maintained family, trade and business connections during the seventeenth century. Studies in family genealogy, often from archives in Mexico City and Spain, suggest that many of the Spanish colonists were crypto-Jews who migrated to new settlements in the north and continued to practice their faith. Today, some of their descendants living in the American Southwest have affirmed or newly discovered their Jewish roots.
    southwestcrossroads.org/record.php?num=901
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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 02 Nov 2014 20:00 #12

    • Oracle
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    Good thread. :cool:

    Thus we have nowadays the infallible dogma of Columbus being the discoverer of America, even if the Chinese, Egyptians, Vikings and a few more peoples regularly went to America long before them, ie transatlantic and transpacific trade has existed long before Columbus which requires a sophisticated science.

    PS: Hence coca and tobacco traces in Egyptian mummies.
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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 02 Nov 2014 20:30 #13

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    Seeing as we are in 1492
    In 1492, Chemor, chief Rabbi of Spain, wrote to the Grand Sanhedrin, which had its seat in Constantinople, for advice, when a Spanish law threatened expulsion.2

    This was the reply:

    ” Beloved brethren in Moses, we have received your letter in which you tell us of the anxieties and misfortunes which you are enduring. We are pierced by as great pain to hear it as yourselves.

    The advice of the Grand Satraps and Rabbis is the following:

    1. As for what you say that the King of Spain obliges you to become Christians: do it, since you cannot do otherwise.

    2. As for what you say about the command to despoil you of your property: make your sons merchants that they may despoil, little by little, the Christians of theirs.

    3. As for what you say about making attempts on your lives: make your sons doctors and apothecaries, that they may take away Christians’ lives.

    4. As for what you say of their destroying your synagogues: make your sons canons and clerics in order that they may destroy their churches. [Emphasis mine]

    5. As for the many other vexations you complain of: arrange that your sons become advocates and lawyers, and see that they always mix in affairs of State, that by putting Christians under your yoke you may dominate the world and be avenged on them.

    6. Do not swerve from this order that we give you, because you will find by experience that, humiliated as you are, you will reach the actuality of power.

    (Signed) PRINCE OF THE JEWS OF CONSTANTINOPLE.”

    2. The reply is found in the sixteenth century Spanish book, La Silva Curiosa, by Julio-Iniguez de Medrano (Paris, Orry, 1608), on pages 156 and 157, with the following explanation: “This letter following was found in the archives of Toledo by the Hermit of Salamanca, (while) searching the ancient records of the kingdoms of Spain; and, as it is expressive and remarkable, I wish to write it here.” — vide, photostat facing page 80.

    theinfounderground.com/smf/index.php?topic=13411.0

    Explains Jewsuits BT

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Society_of_Jesus

    Formed on 27 September 1540
    To understand who rules over you look to whom you tube can't criticise

    The media isn't there to cover the news
    It's there to cover the news up

    All establishment lies pass through three stages
    First, they are accepted as being self evident
    Second, they are exposed by diligent research
    Third, they are enforced

    "Communism is the bloodiest, most difficult and the most terrible way from capitalism to capitalism" from Under the Sign of the Scorpion by Juri Lina
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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 03 Nov 2014 00:15 #14

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    Columbus and the give away hand gesture of the marrano in 15th and 16th century Spain.



    And Ignatio Loyola marrano founder of the Jesuits.

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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 03 Nov 2014 01:16 #15

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    Orangeaid wrote:
    Columbus and the give away hand gesture of the marrano in 15th and 16th century Spain.

    http://hitler-the-jew-and-the-faked-wwii.blogspot.com/2013/06/hitler-doing-masonic-handshakes-and.html 


    Hand Sign "M" The "Marrano" Symbol of Mason ¿



    Marranos -- The Original Crypto Jews
    November 1, 2009
    by Henry Makow Ph.D.

    After Christians took back Spain from the Moors in the 14th Century, they wanted "to root out all non-Catholic elements in the country and unite it under Catholic rule." (Prinz, The Secret Jews, p.25)

    Jews had lived in Spain since the 4th Century BC and had prospered under the Moors. The Church demanded that the more than 400,000 Jews convert or leave. Because thousands had been massacred in anti-Jews riots of 1391, more than 250,000 Jews agreed to convert and became known as "conversos."

    However, the Church soon realized it had made a fatal blunder. As you would expect, the majority of these converts were not sincere. These were called "Marranos" (pigs.) But now that they could pass as Christians, they were exempt from the taxes and restrictions that governed Jews. They were more influential and powerful than ever.

    They intermarried with the nobility and rose to the highest ranks in government and the Church. The founder of the Jesuits, Ignatius of Loyola , was a converso, and so was his successor Diego Lainex. Most conversos practiced Judaism in secret and were considered "Judaizers."

    The "Jews had invaded Spain from within...Judaism was not only incurable; it seemed to be invincible....rather than solving the "Jewish question" the mass conversions had created a new problem: a powerful middle class made up of secret Jews." (42)

    The Marranos are the original model for the Freemasons and Communists. They pretended to belong to the target group. But, like Masons, they had handshakes to recognize each other and they met in secret at night to rehearse their subversive dogmas.

    EXCEPTIONS
    There were also many exceptions, sincere converts like St. Theresa of Avila, the greatest Catholic woman mystic. Ironically, when Ferdinand and Isabella restored the Inquisition in 1478, sincere converts took the lead. "The most notorious of these is Tomas de Torquemada, who was descended from a Jewish family, as was his equally violent assistant, Diego de Daza." (39)

    The Inquisition is considered one of the most traumatic events in Jewish history. But it had no power over Jews. It was addressed at Christians converts who had deviated from the faith:

    "The Marranos ... appeared not as Jews but as allegedly heretical Christians. The number of Marranos who were executed..is estimated at 30,000. The same Inquisition also punished Muslims ("Moriscos")...However, no unconverted Jews were ever called to the tribunals."

    Nevertheless, in 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella expelled all Jews from Spain. Joachim Prinz remarks on the "apparent inability of Jews to understand or predict their own catastrophes. The Jews, whose history consists of one tragedy after another,has yet to be prepared for any one of them." (51)

    AFTERMATH
    The same process was repeated in Portugal. While many Iberian Marranos eventually gave up their religion, many more left and flooded Europe and the New World (America) with Jews who were able to pass as Christians, i.e. "crypto Jews."

    According to Prinz, they prospered wherever they went. Their wealth was "staggering...In Bordeaux, Avignon, Nantes and Marseilles, it became a compliment to characterize a Christian businessman as being "riche comme une juif."

    In England, there were only 100 Marrano families in the early 17th century but "they were among the most successful merchants in London." In Germany, 40 Marrano families participated in the founding of the Bank of Hamburg in 1619. The fortune of the Marranos of Altona near Hamburg, was estimated at almost six million marks and some of the finest homes in nearby Amsterdam belonged to newly arrived Marranos." (127)

    Everyone knew they were Christians of convenience. "The fiction of their Christian allegiance was a business arrangement...[their] banking house..was a Christian institution with which emperors, dukes, bishops, and heads of government could safely do business." (130)

    Inevitably, these Marrano bankers and merchants acted in concert. Prinz tells the story of the Marrano banker (House of Mendes) Joseph Nasi (1524-1579) who controlled the Ottoman Empire as Adviser to Sultan Suleiman and later his son Salim. He tried to create a Jewish homeland at Tiberias but no Jews wanted to settle there. Later, he devised the "Marrano Strategy." He would boycott or ruin anyone who persecuted Marranos. (141)

    When a fire destroyed the Harbor of Venice in 1571, many suspected the House of Mendes of paying arsonists to set the blaze. "And while much of the city was still in flames, Joseph Nasi counseled the sultan to occupy the Venetian island of Cyprus, declaring it a Turkish possession." (142)

    CONCLUSION
    The real history of the world is the story of how certain rich Jewish bankers and their non-Jewish Masonic allies have conspired to establish the world government dictatorship now emerging.

    The outline of this history is becoming visible. Jews or Marranos have always dominated commerce. Their natural allies were the local aristocrats, who provided protection. Intermarriages took place. The royal families of Europe are probably part-Jewish. E.g. Prince Charles was circumcised by a Jewish mohel.

    Now we are seeing a resurgence of the feudal system, where the masses serve this small, inbred, super rich, network of perverts and satanists. Education and media teaches the serfs to embrace the illuminati's agenda. Taser-wielding cops and soldiers will prod the laggards.

    Welcome to the New World Order. It entails some risk for Jews who aren't part of this tiny clique. But Jews never were very good at "predicting their own catastrophes."
    ----

    Related "Old Testament Defender Ostracized by Jews"
    Dick said (November 2, 2009) wrote:
    1492 jumped out at me – I wonder if you have seen any evidence that Columbus (Cristóbal Colón) was himself a Marrano. He was sponsored by Ferdinand and Isabella, and I'm sure one could theorize that his voyage was to find a "New World" for those "non-Catholics" threatened by the inquisition.

    I also find it interesting how "New World Order" is always phrased as a "New Order for the World", and not the "Order for the New World" (America), as it was in John Robison's 1770s book on the
    Illuminati. Taking a long-range view of things, 250-years is not a terribly long project for those being purged from Europe to set up dominion in the New World.

    Dick,
    Joachim Prinz, a former President of the American Jewish Congress, writes in "The Secret Jews" that a major Spanish historian believes Columbus was a Marrano whose family moved to Italy. Marranos played a prominent role in his expeditions and their financing. (pp.56-57)
    http://www.henrymakow.com/marranos_--_the_original_crypt.html 


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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 03 Nov 2014 04:30 #16

    • Mario
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    Sorry a bit late in time but look at the image & the hand ?? >>>
    ________________________________________________

    Portrait of Francis Dashwood, 15th Baron le Despencer by William Hogarth from the late 1750s, parodying Renaissance images of Francis of Assisi. The Bible has been replaced by a copy of the erotic novel Elegantiae Latini sermonis, and the profile of Dashwood's friend Lord Sandwich peers from the halo.

    The Seventeenth century context in which the hell fire clubs were formed was the same as that which saw the creation and development of Grand Lodge, the umbrella body which would come to oversee a dramatic growth in the number of Masonic lodges so it is not surprising that there were overlaps in the memberships of the two types of organisation.

    The hell fire clubs took their generic name from that of one early example of their type. The Hell Fire Club was founded in 1719 by two prominent Freemasons; the Duke of Wharton and George Lee, the Earl of Litchfield. This club initially met in the Greyhound Tavern in London and later at another drinking hole called the George and Vulture.

    Another Freemason and a close friend of the Duke of Wharton, the Earl of Rosse was instrumental behind establishing the Dublin Hell Fire Club. Rosse subsequently became the Grand Master of Ireland’s Freemasons.

    By 1722 both the government (in 1919) and Grand Lodge had condemned the Hell Fire Club and similar societies for their disruptive activities and effectively driven the former underground.

    Nevertheless, despite his known association with the Hell Fire Club, Wharton was able to secure election as Grand Master of the English Grand Lodge and served in this position from 1722 to 1723.
    http://www.wakeupkiwi.com/The-Conspiracy-to-Rule-the-World-1.shtml 


    Well it all starts to fit together like a lost puzzle!

    A Timeline of Known Dates:

    A.D.
    1250 Matthew Paris drawing shows Henry II in conference with operative Masons.
    A.D.
    1356 The formation of the London Masons Company and ordinances governing the Lodge at York.
    A.D.
    1376 The first use of the word Freemason.
    A.D.
    1390 The Regius Poem from Salisbury Cathedral is Masonic.
    A.D.
    1410 The Cooke Manuscript written for the Masonic school at Salisbury.
    A.D.
    1425 Henry VI forbids the yearly congregation of Masons.
    A.D.
    1599 Minutes taken at Aichisons Haven Lodge and St. Mary’s Lodge in Edinburgh.
    A.D.
    1646 Elias Ashmole is initiated into the Masons.
    A.D.
    1717 The formation of the first Grand Lodge of London.
    A.D.
    1733 The first American Lodge is opened.
    http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/secretsoc/secretsoc14.htm 


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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 03 Nov 2014 04:51 #17

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    @Mario you edited your post after i thanked it and added in the Hitler was a marrano nonsense.

    He wasn't.

    Marranos had a reason to secretly reveal who and what they were in the 1400 and 1500s.

    They certainly didn't in the 20th Century.

    Germany was surrounded by jew funded warmongers / puppets and the NS were expelling Jews from Germany.

    That is a stupid thing to post.
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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 03 Nov 2014 06:52 #18

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    Kabbalistic Signet Indicates Columbus was an Exiled Jew

    Columbus was a Jew named Salvador Fernando Zarco and was among those expelled from Spain in 1492, a rare triangular Kabbalistic signet indicates.

    By Tzvi Ben Gedalyahu
    First Publish: 10/17/2008, 8:44 AM

    Columbus was a Jew named Salvador Fernando Zarco and was among those expelled from Spain in 1492, a rare triangular Kabbalistic signet indicates. Jose Rodrigues Dos Santos has authored an historical novel, Codex 632: The Secret Identity of Christopher Columbus, which relates the deciphering of a rare triangular Kabbalistic signet.

    The interpretation of the recent discovery of the signet claims to reveal the secret identity of Columbus. The unique triangular monogram is similar to inscriptions on gravestones in Jewish cemeteries in Spain and southern France. The interpretation of the recent discovery of the signet claims to reveal the secret identity of Columbus.

    It was used in the agreement between Columbus and Spanish King and Queen Ferdinand and Isabella. The Kabbalistic monogram, in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek, contains two secret names: Cristobal Colon, his "nom de plume," and Salvador Fernando Zarco, Columbus's birth name, according to the author.

    The American Library of Congress possesses one of four original copies of the Columbus Codex.

    The Spanish kingdom signed the declaration to expel all Jews, stating that "we ordered that the Jews be separated from the cities and towns... and… ordered that an Inquisition be established in such domains."

    Columbus replied, "Your Highnesses, having driven out all the Jews from your realms and lordships... I should go to the said parts of India, and for this be accorded me great rewards and ennobled me so that from that time henceforth I might style myself and be high admiral of the Ocean Sea and perpetual Governor of the islands and continent which I should discover... from generation to generation."

    The only Jews who remained in Spain were those who converted to Christianity out of fear of being killed. Many of them continued to observe Jewish law clandestinely, and their descendents even today are "Marranos" (crypto-Jews) who secretly observe Jewish laws.

    Columbus came to the attention of the Spanish kingdom through Luis de Santange, a Jew and an accountant to the Royal Court, Rabbi Abraham Zacuto and his pupil Joseph Vecinho, a physician to Portuguese King John II. An astronomer and mathematician, Zacuto developed the "Almanac Perpetuum," which included the Tables of Navigation in Hebrew.

    Luis urged the Crown to approve the expedition in "an enterprise of so little risk, yet which could prove of so great service to [the Almighty]...[not] to speak of very great increase and glory for her realms and crown..."

    Columbus left Spain on August 3, 1492. the day after the Ninth of Av, marking the destruction of the First and Second Holy Temples. However, Columbus ordered his crew to be on board the day before, the same day that was the deadline for Jews in Spain to convert to Christianity, leave the country or face death, implying that he was secretly Jewish and wanted to identify with his brethren.

    Columbus carried with him Zacuto's Hebrew Table of Navigation and charts. His astronomical tables were translated into Spanish by a pupil of Zacuto, Joseph Vecinho, physician to King John II. Vecinho may have translated it for Columbus for his journey.

    Columbus was known to have studied the Bible and once calculated, incorrectly, the date of the destruction of the Second Temple as being in the year 68 instead of 70.

    Besides the Kabbalistic signet, another sign indicating he was Jewish is this use of the initials for "B'Ezrat Ha Shem," or "with G-d's help" in letters to his son Diego.
    www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/127990#.VFcnF4vLeTY
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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 03 Nov 2014 08:33 #19

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    Orangeaid wrote:
    @Mario you edited your post after i thanked it and added in the Hitler was a marrano nonsense.

    Accidentally added the Hitler nonsense to 1492? :ponda:
    Its again jew Makow who mixes in a gate keeping manner truth and pure jewish fiction.
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    Prime example of holocaustianity mental issues, clinically insane, and utterly ill informed, a danger to public health if this dude was working for CDC.
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    Columbus, the Expulsion of Jews from Spain and the Jewish Discovery of the New World 16 Nov 2014 15:56 #20

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    Before Columbus: Erdogan says Muslims 'discovered America,'


    Isn't he Dönmeh?

    :cool2:

    rt.com/news/205895-islam-america-erdogan-cuba/
    "The truth must be repeated over and over again,
    because error is repeatedly preached among us, not
    only by individuals, but by the masses. In periodicals
    and cyclopaedias, in schools and universities; every-
    where, in fact, error prevails, and is quite easy in the
    feeling that it has a decided majority on its side."

    ~ J. W. v. Goethe

    Johannes Lang "The Hollow World Theory" Blog
    My Zone by PFIZIPFEI
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