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TOPIC: ARPANET

ARPANET 30 Nov 2014 08:24 #1

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In the late 1950's the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was founded in the United States with the primary focus of developing information technologies that could survive a nuclear attack. ( Networking the Nerds )In 1967 ARPA university and private sector contractors met with representatives of the Department of Defense to discuss possible protocols for sharing information via computers. In 1969, two years before the calculator was introduced to consumers ( History of the Internet and WWW ) and the year after National Public Radio was established, the precursor of the Internet, ARPANET, was born. It connected four sites at the University of California at Los Angeles, the University of California at Santa Barbara, Stanford Research Institute, and the University of Utah. Throughout the 1970's researchers concentrated on developing protocols for controlling networks, moving messages across a system of networks, and allowing for remote access to the networks. There were computers connected at about two dozen sites when the first email was sent in 1972, but the number of sites and messages soon mushroomed. By 1975 there were 63 sites. In 1980, 200 host computers were connecting 20,000 people at university, military, and government locations. Twelve years later the number of hosts had grown to more than a million internationally ( PBS Timeline ), and in January of 1999 there were more than 43 million. ( Hobbes' Internet Timeline v4.1 )

If the 1970's were a time of research, the 1980's were a time of development. The TCP/IP protocol was introduced in 1983, and at the University of Wisconsin the name server was developed. The next year domain name server (DNS) was established. In 1986, the National Science Foundation developed a system to connect the growing number of hosts. Regional networks were connected to a backbone network, which became known as the NSFNET. As the "Internet" continued to grow and prosper, ARPANET came to an end in 1989 ( PBS Timeline ) just before HTML protocol was introduced in 1990. HTML allowed graphics to be sent along with text to create hypertext pages customized to the sender's preference. ( Networking the Nerds ) Everything was now in place for explosive growth.






Commercial Development
In 1963 during the early days of computers and six years before ARPANET, students at MIT developed the first computer game called Space War. It would be twenty years before the TCP/IP protocol stimulated the growth of various networks and nearly thirty years (1991) before the United States government opened the Internet to private enterprise ( PBS Timeline ), but this game foreshadowed the commercialization of the Internet. In the 1970's and 80's people who were online put out information about furniture and cars they wanted to sell. Debates raged about whether this was an appropriate use of the new research tool, the Internet, but when the Commercial Internet Exchange (CIX) was formed in 1991 the genie would not go back in the bottle.
Commercial contractors have been involved in the development of ARPANET from its inception. As Tang and Teflon began as curiosities of the space program and later became common consumer products, so too have email, web research, and home shopping on the Web. It has only been ten years since the first relay between a commercial entity (MCI Mail) and the Internet was made. Since that time technologies have emerged that have fueled the growth of private enterprise on the Web. In 1992 Paul Linder and Mark McCahill at the University of Minnesota released Gopher, a tool that allowed researchers to retrieve specific data from myriad locations. The next year Mosaic, a web browser, was developed at the University of Illinois by Netscape founder Marc Andreesen, the World Wide Web became a public domain, and the Pentium processor was introduced by Intel to speed up the whole process. ( From ARAPNET to World Wide Web ) As the technology advanced, the Internet became easier to use and the World Wide Web sites became more intricate and inviting. In 1994 shopping malls arrived on the Net. You could order pizza from Pizza Hut online or bank at First Virtual Bank, the first cyberbank. Of course, the advancements came with a downside. Vladimir Levin of Russia became the first publicly known Internet bank robber when he used the Internet to illegally transfer funds to his account. ( Hobbes' Internet Timeline v4.1 )

1995 saw the introduction of several emerging technologies such as JAVA and JAVAscript, Virtual Environments, and RealAudio which further enhanced the kind of product information which could be made available to consumers. Commercial users now outnumbered research and academic users by a two to one margin, and Bill Gates decided to redefine Microsoft as an Internet company. ( History of the Internet ) Today one can shop online for books, food and wine, travel, and real estate. Other business activities include buying stocks and bonds, banking, and retirement planning. Online shopping accounted for over $9 billion in 1997 and is expected to be $30 billion by the year 2000. In light of this growth, the U.S. Commerce Department will begin studying the impact of online shopping on total retail activity. ( Commerce Department to Measure Online Sales ) Consumer spending via the Internet draws much interest, but business to business activity is also booming. The consulting group Piper Jaffray estimates that by the year 2001 Internet based business to business transactions will total US $201.6 billion. Forrester Research estimates that by 2002 online business to business transactions will total US $327 billion, ( Internet Statistics ), while other projections indicate that by 2003, consumers will spend $108 billion, while businesses will spend $1.3 trillion. ( Spotlight: Corporate E-commerce Kicks Into Gear )

For further information on the history of the Internet, an extensive list of links may be found at the Internet Society Web site ).
education.illinois.edu/wp/commercialism/history-of-the-internet.htm


Internet Timeline

Read about milestones, advancements, and major breakthroughs in the development of the Internet.


1969 ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) goes online in December, connecting four major U.S. universities. Designed for research, education, and government organizations, it provides a communications network linking the country in the event that a military attack destroys conventional communications systems.1972 Electronic mail is introduced by Ray Tomlinson, a Cambridge, Mass., computer scientist. He uses the @ to distinguish between the sender's name and network name in the email address.1973 Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is designed and in 1983 it becomes the standard for communicating between computers over the Internet. One of these protocols, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), allows users to log onto a remote computer, list the files on that computer, and download files from that computer.1976 Presidential candidate Jimmy Carter and running mate Walter Mondale use email to plan campaign events.Queen Elizabeth sends her first email. She's the first state leader to do so.1982 The word “Internet” is used for the first time.1984 Domain Name System (DNS) is established, with network addresses identified by extensions such as .com, .org, and .edu.Writer William Gibson coins the term “cyberspace.”1985 Quantum Computer Services, which later changes its name to America Online, debuts. It offers email, electronic bulletin boards, news, and other information.1988 A virus called the Internet Worm temporarily shuts down about 10% of the world's Internet servers.1989 The World (world.std.com) debuts as the first provider of dial-up Internet access for consumers.Tim Berners-Lee of CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics) develops a new technique for distributing information on the Internet. He calls it the World Wide Web. The Web is based on hypertext, which permits the user to connect from one document to another at different sites on the Internet via hyperlinks (specially programmed words, phrases, buttons, or graphics). Unlike other Internet protocols, such as FTP and email, the Web is accessible through a graphical user interface.1990 The first effort to index the Internet is created by Peter Deutsch at McGill University in Montreal, who devises Archie, an archive of FTP sites.1991 Gopher, which provides point-and-click navigation, is created at the University of Minnesota and named after the school mascot. Gopher becomes the most popular interface for several years.Another indexing system, WAIS (Wide Area Information Server), is developed by Brewster Kahle of Thinking Machines Corp.1993 Mosaic is developed by Marc Andreeson at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). It becomes the dominant navigating system for the World Wide Web, which at this time accounts for merely 1% of all Internet traffic.1994 The White House launches its website, www.whitehouse.gov.Initial commerce sites are established and mass marketing campaigns are launched via email, introducing the term “spamming” to the Internet vocabulary.Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark start Netscape Communications. They introduce the Navigator browser.1995 CompuServe, America Online, and Prodigy start providing dial-up Internet access.Sun Microsystems releases the Internet programming language called Java.The Vatican launches its own website, www.vatican.va.1996 Approximately 45 million people are using the Internet, with roughly 30 million of those in North America (United States and Canada), 9 million in Europe, and 6 million in Asia/Pacific (Australia, Japan, etc.). 43.2 million (44%) U.S. households own a personal computer, and 14 million of them are online.1997 On July 8, 1997, Internet traffic records are broken as the NASA website broadcasts images taken by Pathfinder on Mars. The broadcast generates 46 million hits in one day.The term “weblog” is coined. It’s later shortened to “blog.”1998 Google opens its first office, in California.1999 College student Shawn Fanning invents Napster, a computer application that allows users to swap music over the Internet.
The number of Internet users worldwide reaches 150 million by the beginning of 1999. More than 50% are from the United States.
“E-commerce” becomes the new buzzword as Internet shopping rapidly spreads.MySpace.com is launched.2000 To the chagrin of the Internet population, deviant computer programmers begin designing and circulating viruses with greater frequency. “Love Bug” and “Stages” are two examples of self-replicating viruses that send themselves to people listed in a computer user's email address book. The heavy volume of email messages being sent and received forces many infected companies to temporarily shut down their clogged networks.
The Internet bubble bursts, as the fountain of investment capital dries up and the Nasdaq stock index plunges, causing the initial public offering (IPO) window to slam shut and many dotcoms to close their doors.America Online buys Time Warner for $16 billion. It’s the biggest merger of all time.2001 Napster is dealt a potentially fatal blow when the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco rules that the company is violating copyright laws and orders it to stop distributing copyrighted music. The file-swapping company says it is developing a subscription-based service.
About 9.8 billion electronic messages are sent daily.Wikipedia is created.2002 As of January, 58.5% of the U.S. population (164.14 million people) uses the Internet. Worldwide there are 544.2 million users.
The death knell tolls for Napster after a bankruptcy judge ruled in September that German media giant Bertelsmann cannot buy the assets of troubled Napster Inc. The ruling prompts Konrad Hilbers, Napster CEO, to resign and lay off his staff.2003 It's estimated that Internet users illegally download about 2.6 billion music files each month.
Spam, unsolicited email, becomes a server-clogging menace. It accounts for about half of all emails. In December, President Bush signs the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003 (CAN-SPAM Act), which is intended to help individuals and businesses control the amount of unsolicited email they receive.
Apple Computer introduces Apple iTunes Music Store, which allows people to download songs for 99 cents each.Spam, unsolicited email, becomes a server-clogging menace. It accounts for about half of all emails.Apple Computer introduces Apple iTunes Music Store, which allows people to download songs for 99 cents each.2004 Internet Worm, called MyDoom or Novarg, spreads through Internet servers. About 1 in 12 email messages are infected.Online spending reaches a record high—$117 billion in 2004, a 26% increase over 2003.2005 YouTube.com is launched.2006 There are more than 92 million websites online.2007 Legal online music downloads triple to 6.7 million downloads per week.Colorado Rockies' computer system crashes when it receives 8.5 million hits within the first 90 minutes of World Series ticket sales.The online game, World of Warcraft, hits a milestone when it surpasses 9 million subscribers worldwide in July.2008 In a move to challenge Google's dominance of search and advertising on the Internet, software giant Microsoft offers to buy Yahoo for $44.6 billion.In a San Fransisco federal district court, Judge Jeffrey S. White orders the disabling of Wikileaks.org, a Web site that discloses confidential information. The case was brought by Julius Baer Bank and Trust, located in the Cayman Islands, after a disgruntled ex-employee allegedly provided Wikileaks with stolen documents that implicate the bank in asset hiding, money laundering, and tax evasion. Many web communities, who see the ruling as unconstitutional, publicized alternate addresses for the site and distributed bank documents through their own networks. In response, Judge White issues another order to stop the distribution of bank documents.Microsoft is fined $1.3 billion by the European Commission for further abusing its dominant market position, and failing to comply to their 2004 judgment, which ordered Microsoft to give competitors information necessary to operate with Windows. Since 2004, Microsoft has been fined a total of $2.5 billion by the Commission for not adhering to their ruling. 2012 A major protest online in January shakes up Congressional support for anti-Web piracy measures. The protest, including a 24-hour shutdown of the English-language Wikipedia site, is over two bills, the Stop Online Piracy Act in the House and the Protect IP Act in the Senate. The main goal of both bills is to stop illegal downloading and streaming of TV shows and movies online. The tech industry is concerned that the bills will give media companies too much power to shut down websites. 2014 A coding error discovered in April in OpenSSL, encryption software that makes transactions between a computer and a remote secure, makes users vulnerable to having their usernames, passwords, and personal information stolen. Millions of banks, Internet commerce companies, email services, government sites, and social media sites rely on OpenSSL to conduct secure transactions. The coding error was made in 2012. Computer security experts encourage computer users to change their passwords

Read more: Internet Timeline | Infoplease.com www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0193167.html#ixzz3KXQnIXT7
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ARPANET 05 Mar 2015 07:50 #2

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The 80's supercomputer that's sitting in your lap
www.techrepublic.com/blog/classics-rock/the-80s-supercomputer-thats-sitting-in-your-lap/

Although I don't believe man has bolted past LEO and that many thigns are hoaxed and contrived by the Cryptocracy,the technological advances in the past 30 years is astoundining.
The Big Brother State envisioned by Orwell is here,and it is not fear porn to note the vast police state tactics being used on the masses globally.
The fear is in folks that deny the global spying techniques used by governments,intelligence and military agencies on a global level.
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ARPANET 05 Mar 2015 15:11 #3

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zax wrote:
The 80's supercomputer that's sitting in your lap
www.techrepublic.com/blog/classics-rock/the-80s-supercomputer-thats-sitting-in-your-lap/

Although I don't believe man has bolted past LEO and that many things are hoaxed and contrived by the Cryptocracy,the technological advances in the past 30 years is astounding.
The Big Brother State envisioned by Orwell is here,and it is not fear porn to note the vast police state tactics being used on the masses globally.
The fear is in folks that deny the global spying techniques used by governments,intelligence and military agencies on a global level.

All it is now its the Communists Stasi system modernized because people are not very reliable and always asking for more monkey money for there services.

@ oiram @
Last Edit: 05 Mar 2015 15:18 by Mario.
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ARPANET 06 Mar 2015 06:05 #4

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NSA building new super-computer: You won’t believe what it does- “Owning The Internet
benswann.com/nsa-building-new-super-computer-you-wont-believe-what-it-does-owning-the-internet/
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