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Paranormal is a general term that designates experiences that lie outside "the range of normal experience or scientific explanation" or that indicates phenomena understood to be outside of science's current ability to explain or measure. Read More: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paranormal

TOPIC: Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums

Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums 03 May 2015 08:44 #1

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Dictyostelium aggregation





The slime mould life cycle (Figure 02), which alternates between a unicellular feeding stage and a multicellular reproductive stage is described in the followings:

They begin their life from spore germination and multiplication.
The basic units of slime moulds are haploid amoebae, usually prowling around on the forest floor consuming bacteria.
Once the supply of food is exhausted, individual amoebae begin to move together. They form streams of cells called pseudoplasmodium moving slowly at about one millimeter/hour. It is now known that the process is initiated with the cAMP1 signaling molecules released by the starving amoebae.
Eventually the streams come together and form an aggregation which is at the spot with high concentration of cAMP. The mass can number a hundred thousand cells and might reach a size of a few millimeters.
Then they stick together by secreting adhesion molecules and creating a slime sheath (cap) which covers all the cells in the mass. The polarity defined by the anterior (front), posterior (back) ends is established by oxygen gradient. The responsible gene for adhesion can be identified by blocking its expression. The resulting mass becomes a loose rubble that is incapable of further development.
The mass of cells now begins to behave as one, gliding around on the ground as if it were a miniature garden slug leaving a track of slime behind (and hence the name, Figure 03). The movement of the slug is guided by the higher concentration of cAMP at the anterior region of the cap.
Figure 03 Multicelluar Development [view large image]

The migration continues toward higher concentration of ammonia (giving off by decaying organism), which means food for them.
The slug stops at a favourable spot. The anterio cells become a stalk while the posterior cells climb up and form a spherical head, the sorocarp, which develops into spores. The pattern in this fruiting body is based on a constant ratio of cells in the stalk and in the sorocarp (about 3/4). The cells have now been differentiated into a non-reproductive stalk and spores carrying the next generation. The stalk would soon wither away once its mission (of spore dispersal) has been accomplished. It is found that some strain of slime moulds manage to stay behind in the posterior area of the slug and thus become spores all the time; only their genes get copied into the next generation.
Finally, on germination of a spore, a pore appears in the cellulose coat through which the amoeba is liberated to begin a new cycle. This life cycle is asexual, there is no fusion of male and female sex cells (gametes). They exist entirely in haploid state. The slime moulds also run a sexual life cycle which is very different from the one just described.
universe-review.ca/R10-18-slimemoulds.htm
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Last Edit: 03 May 2015 08:53 by Frothy.
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Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums 03 May 2015 08:48 #2

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In 1973, a Dallas resident went out to the backyard only to stumble upon a reddish, jelly-like mass pulsating in the grass. News reports on the discovery claimed that a “new life form” had been found, and many people couldn’t help recalling the cult classic sci-fi thriller The Blob.
Scientists called to the scene, however, put any fears of menacing goo or alien creatures to rest by identifying the mass as an unusually large (46 centimeters or more than 14 inches in diameter) plasmodial slime mold.

p_slime
Slime molds spend most of their lives independently, but during food shortages, they swarm and aggregate into an enormous single cell.

Slime molds have traits like both fungi and animals. They have very complex life cycles involving multiple forms and stages. During good times, they live as independent, amoeba-like cells, dining on fungi and bacteria. But if conditions become uncomfortable—not enough food available, the temperature isn't right, etc.—individual cells begin gathering together to form a single structure. This happens when the cells give off a chemical signal that tells all of them to gather together. The new communal structure produces a slimy covering and is called a slug because it so closely resembles the animal you sometimes see gliding across sidewalks. The slug oozes toward light. When the communal cells sense that they've come across more food or better conditions, the slug stops. It then slowly does a kind of headstand. Cells in the slug now begin to do different things. Some of the cells form an anchor for the upended slug. Others in the middle of the slug begin making a stalk and some at the tip turn into what's called a spore cap and others become spores in that cap. When a drop of rain or strong wind knocks the spore cap hard enough, the spores go flying out. These spores are like plant seeds. Each of them becomes a new amoeba-like cell when they land and each goes off on its merry way.

slimemold
Slime molds were once considered fungi, but unlike fungi, they can move, and their cell membranes are made of different stuff.

Slime molds are made up of individual cells that form an aggregate mass. In their visible, aggregate states, they look like blobs, gooey or foamy masses, spilled jelly, or even dog vomit. They may be bright orange, red, yellow, brown, black, blue, or white.

These large masses act like giant amoebas, creeping slowly along and engulfing food particles along the way. If a slime mold aggregate is diced up, the pieces will pull themselves back together. The blobs can navigate and avoid obstacles and if a food source is placed nearby, they seem to sense it and head unerringly for it.

There are two kinds of slime molds. Plasmodial slime molds (the most common kind) share one big cell wall that surrounds thousands or millions of nuclei. Proteins called microfilaments act like tiny muscles that enable the mass to crawl at rates of about 1/25th of an inch per hour.

As long as there is enough food and moisture, the mass thrives. But when food and water are scarce, the mass separates into smaller blobs. The Plasmodium forms stalks topped by sphere-like fruiting bodies that contain spores that are carried by the rain or wind to new locations.

Cellular slime molds also produce spores, but these germinate into amoeba-like cells. The cells happily go their individual ways, as long as food and water are available.

When nutrients and moisture are scarce, individual cells send out a chemical beacon to attract other cells of the same species. The cells join up to form a mass that looks and acts like a slug to take them to a more favorable location.

actinophCells in cellular slime molds retain their individual cell walls when they form a mass, so the visible slug is actually a collection of hundreds of thousands of individual cells joined together.

Slime molds eat decaying vegetation, bacteria, fungi, and even other slime molds. They are most commonly found in forests.

If you want to see some neat movie files of slime mold slugs in motion, go here (first three movies files are cool.) More detailed info on slime molds can be found on this site.

www.microbeworld.org/types-of-microbes/protista/slime-molds
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Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums 03 May 2015 09:05 #3

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Slime mould makes map of Tokyo region rail system. and other international travel systems.

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Last Edit: 03 May 2015 09:08 by Frothy.
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Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums 03 May 2015 09:15 #4

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Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums 03 May 2015 09:18 #5

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The New World Order is Explained by A Slime Mold!

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Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums 03 May 2015 09:34 #6

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Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums 03 May 2015 09:47 #7

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Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums 03 May 2015 13:26 #8

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Another thread by the hasbara blue tackler on his family ;)





A fungus is any member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, protists, and bacteria.

Many species have developed specialized hyphal structures for nutrient uptake from living hosts; examples include haustoria in plant-parasitic species of most fungal phyla, and arbuscules of several mycorrhizal fungi, which penetrate into the host cells to consume nutrients.

:roll:
"The truth must be repeated over and over again,
because error is repeatedly preached among us, not
only by individuals, but by the masses. In periodicals
and cyclopaedias, in schools and universities; every-
where, in fact, error prevails, and is quite easy in the
feeling that it has a decided majority on its side."

~ J. W. v. Goethe

Johannes Lang "The Hollow World Theory" Blog
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Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums 03 May 2015 21:09 #9

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PFIZIPFEI wrote:
Another thread by the hasbara blue tackler on his family ;)





A fungus is any member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, protists, and bacteria.

Many species have developed specialized hyphal structures for nutrient uptake from living hosts; examples include haustoria in plant-parasitic species of most fungal phyla, and arbuscules of several mycorrhizal fungi, which penetrate into the host cells to consume nutrients.

:roll:

And in comes a Jew hater with a troll comment, how typical. :sadno:
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Last Edit: 03 May 2015 21:10 by Frothy.
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Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums 03 May 2015 21:53 #10

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Blue_Tackler wrote:
And in comes a Jew hater with a troll comment, how typical. :sadno:



- Classic hasbara insults: Anti-semite, Neo-Nazi, Jew hater, Fascist, White Supremacist, Holocaust denier


I don't hate anybody, hasbara troll.
But you hate the truth - and Germans - as you recurrently prove, and this is the only proof that you ever put forward.

:)
"The truth must be repeated over and over again,
because error is repeatedly preached among us, not
only by individuals, but by the masses. In periodicals
and cyclopaedias, in schools and universities; every-
where, in fact, error prevails, and is quite easy in the
feeling that it has a decided majority on its side."

~ J. W. v. Goethe

Johannes Lang "The Hollow World Theory" Blog
My Zone by PFIZIPFEI
Last Edit: 03 May 2015 21:54 by PFIZIPFEI.
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Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums 03 May 2015 22:38 #11

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Slime and seed dispersal :ponda: sounds like a spunk attack :yup: all that precious information disguised as slime.
:larf:

Does the slime have any electric properties BT?
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Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums 03 May 2015 22:59 #12

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Asva wrote:
Slime and seed dispersal :ponda: sounds like a spunk attack :yup: all that precious information disguised as slime.
:larf:

Does the slime have any electric properties BT?

I'm not sure that it does Asva, have you seen the video here where they make routes like railway systems etc.... it's further back somewhere prior to fizzywizzy's trolling :up:
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Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums 03 May 2015 23:05 #13

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Blue_Tackler wrote:
Asva wrote:
Slime and seed dispersal :ponda: sounds like a spunk attack :yup: all that precious information disguised as slime.
:larf:

Does the slime have any electric properties BT?

I'm not sure that it does Asva, have you seen the video here where they make routes like railway systems etc.... it's further back somewhere prior to fizzywizzy's trolling :up:

What about the cell structure, are there mitochondrial cells at this point?
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Slime Moulds & Pseudoplasmodiums 03 May 2015 23:22 #14

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Asva wrote:
Blue_Tackler wrote:
Asva wrote:
Slime and seed dispersal :ponda: sounds like a spunk attack :yup: all that precious information disguised as slime.
:larf:

Does the slime have any electric properties BT?

I'm not sure that it does Asva, have you seen the video here where they make routes like railway systems etc.... it's further back somewhere prior to fizzywizzy's trolling :up:

What about the cell structure, are there mitochondrial cells at this point?

Yes I think there are always cells, they just cooperate as if they were one being afaik,

In the slime mould/slug/fungi transformation they start off as amoeba type beings, they then gather and join forming a slug type mega being, it had a head and backside end, it then turns into a fungi and spores....

I think the yellow slime expanding slime is a different species, it spans out with veins going to protein/food, like a rail system, possible with amoeba travelling the veins,
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