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TOPIC: The Earth is Convex not Concave

History of Navigation -- The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 06:10 #41

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History of Navigation


How could this ever be calculated if the convex theory would be our reality?
How would the Sealers end up where they like to end up with this calculation system
if the convex theory would be our reality?
.......... Well 1 + 1 = 2 >>>>> ALWAYS!
Introduction: Concept

If the positions of two points on the earth's surface are known, the distance between them can be found.

First, a latitude and longitude near the boat's actual position, such as a dead reckoning (DR) position, is required. With reference to the Nautical Almanac , the altitude of the sun from the DR position can be obtained. The zenith distance can then be deduced from this tabulated altitude, and the position circle obtained by converting the zenith distance to nautical miles (one minute of arc at the earth's centre=one nautical mile on earth's surface). For example, if the tabulated altitude is 29° 40'.0, the zenith distance would be 90° - tabulated altitude = 60° 20'.0, and the radius of the position circle would be
60 (degrees) * 60 (min of arc) + 20 (min of arc) = 3620 minutes of arc = 3620 nautical miles.

History of Navigation



Fig 2.1 Dip is determined by height of eye

Fig 2.4 Refraction the heavenly body's Altitude appears to be higher than it actually is



Dip is the angle between the horizontal plane through the observer's eye and the visible horizon (see Fig 2.1). It occurs because the eye is always above the sea level so that the observed altitude is always greater than the altitude as measured from a point at sea level, where theoretically the horizon would be in a true horizontal plane.








Light passing from outer space into the earth's atmosphere is refracted. Refraction is at a maximum when the HB viewed is low down near the horizon, diminishing the zero when the HB is directly overhead.
http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/gem-projects/hm/0203-1-30-navigation/sextant1.html 


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Last Edit: 26 Sep 2014 06:22 by Mario.
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History of Navigation -- The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 06:17 #42

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:larf:

Yeah, let's pretend we can't see anything, right Mario ?
At least you have perfected copying :joker:

That's you below.

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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 06:29 #43

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As @rodin once said here somewhere ..
bring something to the table where others can work with & then things may have a chance to be reevaluated and upgraded!

Same with me!

Also don't trust your eyes but trust your evaluating mind more because its your third eye .........
Its not always what you see physically which is the reality of things!

Just look at this how easy it is to deceive your eyes.
This should be a third eye opener in this regards & all videos you ever viewing! >>
skycentrism wrote:
Mario, rodin :thumbup: :larf:
Almost forgot: keep degrading my karma, that's hilarious. Help me beat Cinta :larf:

No need ........ Reputation does not score on Repetition!

If this would be so; even the Fiat-Jew Propaganda would score points ........ but they clearly don't!
All they representing; is the lots of Zero's behind the 6!

Repetition      Repetition      Repetition      Repetition      Repetition
Repetition      Repetition      Repetition      
Repetition      Repetition    
 

=
Last Edit: 26 Sep 2014 06:45 by Mario.
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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 06:36 #44

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Also don't trust your eyes but trust your evaluating mind more because its your third eye .........
Its not always what you see physically which is the reality of things!

:O

I think your third eye is spot on. I think you could get rid of the other two.

The Earth is curved, I was wrong, I'm sorry...

:yerright:
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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 06:58 #45

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skycentrism wrote:
Also don't trust your eyes but trust your evaluating mind more because its your third eye .........
Its not always what you see physically which is the reality of things!
I think your third eye is spot on. I think you could get rid of the other two.
The Earth is curved, I was wrong, I'm sorry... :yerright:
Yes in cases its a good idea to get rid of the two eyes.

Now you go up to the same spot which the image shows you & take this instrument with you.
Then start again talking & show us all what you get.
I presume you may know what the instrument on the right is & what its used for??


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Last Edit: 26 Sep 2014 07:00 by Mario.
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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 06:59 #46

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I presume you may know what the instrument used is??

Yes, it's a third eye that lets you see the curvature on the left picture. Now I start to finally understand, thank you !
Last Edit: 26 Sep 2014 07:01 by skycentrism.
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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 07:03 #47

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skycentrism wrote:
I presume you may know what the instrument used is??

Yes, it's a third eye that lets you see the curvature on the left picture. Now I start to finally understand, thank you !

No its a >>>>>> Surveying Instruments - Total Stations, Theodolite used mainly in constructions!

You only making a fool of yourself with your own comments. :wissl: :facepalm:
Last Edit: 26 Sep 2014 07:06 by Mario.
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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 07:04 #48

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Mario wrote:
skycentrism wrote:
I presume you may know what the instrument used is??

Yes, it's a third eye that lets you see the curvature on the left picture. Now I start to finally understand, thank you !

You only making a fool of yourself with your own comments. :wissl: :facepalm:

Give me a chance, I can see the curvature. It's definitely there. What's your point ? :(



It's there and you were right all this time !
Last Edit: 26 Sep 2014 07:05 by skycentrism.
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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 07:15 #49

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skycentrism wrote:
It's there and you were right all this time !

Expose someone did try your own concave theory in the past & then ended up with this? >>>>>



By the way I do not care if your world you live in; is concave in your own mind .........
I only care about the youngsters which looking at threads & comments like these!

Please all of you Protect your Children from all manipulators, lies, drugs & alcohol as good you can!

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Last Edit: 26 Sep 2014 07:27 by Mario.
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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 07:18 #50

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Mario wrote:
skycentrism wrote:
It's there and you were right all this time !

Expose someone did try your own concave theory in the past & then ended up with its? >>>>>


@ oiram @

I'm sorry Mario :( I was looking for some fisheye lens theories while the reality was right before my eyes, all this time !
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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 07:36 #51

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skycentrism wrote:
I'm sorry Mario :( I was looking for some fisheye lens theories while the reality was right before my eyes, all this time !

Here you go!

http://michel.thoby.free.fr/Fisheye_history_short/Beyond-the-pupil.html 

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Last Edit: 26 Sep 2014 07:43 by Mario.
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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 07:39 #52

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What ?

This is the real curvature, I finally understand. You said that also.
:conf:

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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 07:52 #53

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No its more like this...........
Because you so great on posting your same image over & over I will bring some change into the thread to make it more interesting for viewers.

You should book a flight for yourself ........ cost only 110,000 Euros — about $156,000


Tuesday, August 23, 2011
Near Space Tourism
Travel to Near-Space in a 400-Foot Diameter Balloon By Jason Paur August 12, 2011 | 4:11 pm | Categories: Air Travel

A Spanish entrepreneur wants to give you a glimpse of the black expanse of space and the curvature of the earth from a most unusual vantage point — a balloon.

José Mariano López-Urdiales, the founder of zero2infinity, is offering what he calls the “near-space” experience of viewing the planet and the space beyond it from 36 km [22 miles] above the earth. He hopes to have the first passengers aloft in the near-space vehicle called a “bloon” — the company doesn’t appear to be big on capital letters — by the middle of this decade.

That altitude is a long ways from the height of more than 100 km promised by Virgin Galactic and others developing suborbital space tourism vehicles. But López-Urdiales argues the 100-km definition of space is somewhat arbitrary and the view from 36 km offers essentially the same viewing experience as higher altitudes. The bright sun is surrounded by a black sky. The curvature of the earth is clearly visible, highlighted by the electric blue of the atmosphere just above the horizon. López-Urdiales says people were enjoying this view long before there were rockets.

“The first people who described the earth as a blue ball were not in rockets,” he says. “They were flying in balloons.”

The great appeal of zero2infinity’s concept is that you’ll enjoy the view for a couple of hours, as opposed to the handful of minutes you’ll experience flying beyond the atmosphere in a rocket. And without the rumble of a rocket, the ride will be serene.

“A balloon stays for a longer time than a ballistic parabola,” López-Urdiales notes. “A suborbital vehicle is limited by the laws of ballistics and only lasts a few minutes. It can only last so long where the sky is black and the view is beautiful.”

Passengers aboard the bloon “near-space ship” will spend five to six hours on their journey, including two hours at cruise altitude with the blackness of space above them and the curvature of the earth below.

López-Urdiales is an MIT-educated aerospace engineer who spent several years in the rocket industry, including stints at Boeing and the European Space Agency. In 2000, before Dennis Tito made the first space tourism flight, López-Urdiales first came up with the idea of using a balloon to take people high enough to enjoy a space-like view of the earth. He knew balloons had long been used to take people to high altitudes, but pioneering days of high-altitude balloon flights ended with the beginning of the rocket era. López-Urdiales points out it’s probably not a coincidence that the highest piloted flight in a balloon, 34.7 km, occurred in 1961, the same year Yuri Gagarin rocketed into space.

López-Urdiales was in his early twenties a decade ago when he published several papers on the topic of using high altitude balloons to deliver a near-space experience. But he did not have the resources to follow up on his ideas, even though he knew somebody eventually would capitalize on the concept.

Fast forward to 2009. López-Urdiales had refined his ideas and even put aside some capital. And to his surprise, no one had developed his idea. He decided to act. López-Urdiales’ idea gained attention during the 2010 World Cup. He flew a Spanish national jersey on a balloon during a test flight; the photo of the jersey suspended against the black sky made headlines around the world.

Not many noticed zero2infinitiy’s bigger plans during the World Cup. But last month the company received an initial round of funding from Caixa Capital Risc, a Spanish venture capital company. Several private investors have also joined in the initial round of financing according to López-Urdiales.

“It’s going to offer more time, less training and a lot less complexity,” he says of bloon.

The bloon, beneath the parafoil that will carry it back to earth.
Bloon will carry passengers in a pod suspended beneath a large helium balloon, or sail, as it is called. The pod is 4.3 meters [13 feet, 8 inches] in diameter and has room for two pilots and four passengers. It will be pressurized and comfortable enough for passengers to wear normal clothes.

The balloon will spend a few hours rising to a cruising altitude of around 36 km, where the sail will be 129 meters [423 feet] in diameter. Why 36 km? Because at that height you can see the blackness of space and the curvature of the earth. López-Urdiales likes to point out there isn’t actually a line dividing the atmosphere and space. The United States long defined space as beginning at 50 miles [80km]. Today it is defined by most as beginning at 100 km, at what is called the Kármán Line. López-Urdiales notes it is no coincidence the definition is framed by our system of counting by tens because we have ten fingers.

“Following that logic, 64 km would be the limit of space in the world of the Simpsons,” he says, noting with tongue firmly in cheek that the Simpsons have eight fingers. “Then our 36 km is the limit of space on planet Dagobah, home to Jedi Master Yoda.”

Regardless, passengers will spend a few hours cruising silently 36 km above the earth before beginning their descent. As the sail is slowly vented, the pod descends until the sail separates from the pod. A parafoil is deployed to fly the pod back to earth.

At first glance the use of a large parachute-like device may seem less than ideal. But parafoils have been widely tested by the military and others, and they can be flown over relatively long distances. During the descent under the parafoil, the pod can be flown 40 km [25 miles] in any direction to safely guide it to a predetermined landing site, López-Urdiales says.

“We’ve gotten really good at predicting the trajectory of these balloons,” he says. “But there is some error that accumulates throughout the trajectory and it can be corrected about 40 km.”

Weather of course must be considered for this type of flight, as it must be for any flight. Flights are more likely to happen in places where the weather is good and during times when it can be predicted with high certainty, López-Urdiales says. Zero2infinity will be launching a scale version of bloon system later this year to test the entire cycle of the flight. López-Urdiales says the company expects to launch its first piloted flight next year and hopes to offer passenger flights by the middle of the decade.

The rides won’t be cheap. López-Urdiales says the full experience will cost 110,000 Euros — about $156,000 at today’s exchange rate. That’s cheaper than Virgin Galactic tickets, which will run $200,000 for a sub-orbital ride aboard SpaceShipTwo.

“In specific per-minute price when you get to look out the window, it’s much less expensive” López-Urdiales says.

Early flights are likely to happen in Spain, where the weather is nice and the company is based. But López-Urdiales says there are several places around the world that are viable locations for an bloon journey, and he hopes to offer the experience in many countries. The way he sees it, if people simply want the experience of blasting off, they’ll look elsewhere. And he’s fine with that.

“If somebody wants a rocket, they will probably not fly with us,” he says. “But if they want the view, they probably will.”
http://spacetechie.blogspot.com/2011/08/near-space-tourism.html 

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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 07:58 #54

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I think it's more like this ! I have a strong feeling that this and the convex Earth may somehow be connected. I don't know how yet, but you know...who knows :dunno: Life is full of mysteries, so is the third eye I finally reopened.



Force of nature gave life its asymmetry
'Left-handed' electrons destroy certain organic molecules faster than their mirror versions.

Elizabeth Gibney
25 September 2014
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Life is made largely of molecules that are different than their mirror images.
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Physicists have found hints that the asymmetry of life — the fact that most biochemical molecules are ‘left-handed’ or ‘right-handed’ — could have been caused by electrons from nuclear decay in the early days of evolution. In an experiment that took 13 years to perfect1, the researchers have found that these electrons tend to destroy certain organic molecules slightly more often than they destroy their mirror images.

Many organic molecules, including glucose and most biological amino acids, are ‘chiral’. This means that they are different than their mirror-image molecules, just like a left and a right glove are. Moreover, in such cases life tends to consistently use one of the possible versions — for example, the DNA double helix in its standard form always twists like a right-handed screw. But the reason for this preference has long remained a mystery.

Many scientists think that the choice was simply down to chance. Perhaps, in one of the warm little ponds filled with organic chemicals where life arose, a statistical fluke generated a small imbalance in the relative amounts of the two versions of one chemical. This small imbalance could have then amplified over time.

But an asymmetry in the laws of nature has led others to wonder whether some physical phenomenon could have tipped the balance during the early stages of life. The weak nuclear force, which is involved in nuclear decay, is the only force of nature known to have a handedness preference: electrons created in the subatomic process known as β decay are always 'left-handed'. This means that their spin — a quantum property analogous to the magnetization of a bar magnet — is always opposite in direction to the electron's motion.

In 1967, biochemist Frederic Vester and environmental scientist Tilo Ulbricht proposed that photons generated by these so-called spin-polarized electrons — which are produced in the decay of radioactive materials or of cosmic-ray particles in the atmosphere — could have destroyed more of one kind of molecule than another, creating the imbalance. Some physicists have since suggested that the electrons themselves might be the source of the asymmetry.

But the hunt to find chemical processes through which electrons or photons could preferentially destroy one version of a molecule over its mirror image has seen little success. Many claims have proven impossible to reproduce4, 5. The few experiments in which electron handedness produced a chiral imbalance could not identify the chemical process behind it, says Timothy Gay, a chemical physicist at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln and a co-author of the latest study1. But pinpointing a chemical reaction would help scientists to rule out some candidate causes of the process and to better understand the physics that underlie it, he adds.

Gay and Joan Dreiling, a physicist also at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, fired low-energy, spin-polarized electrons at a gas of bromocamphor, an organic compound used in some parts of the world as a sedative. In the resulting reaction, some electrons were captured by the molecules, which then were kicked into an excited state. The molecules then fell apart, producing bromide ions and other highly reactive compounds. By measuring the flow of ions produced, the researchers could see how often the reaction occurred for each handedness of electron.

The researchers found that left-handed bromocamphor was just slightly more likely to react with right-handed electrons than with left-handed ones. The converse was true when they used right-handed bromocamphor molecules. At the lowest energies, the direction of the preference flipped, causing an opposite asymmetry.

In all cases the asymmetry was tiny, but consistent, like flipping a not-quite-fair coin. “The scale of the asymmetry is as though we flip 20,000 coins again and again, and on average, 10,003 of them land on heads while 9,997 land on tails,” says Dreiling.

The low speed of the electrons was the key to why the experiment finally worked after so many years, Dreiling says. “The interaction takes longer, and it was that insight, I think, that led to our success,” she says.

The test offers an explanation for how a chiral excess could — at least in principle — arise, Gay says. The research was published in Physical Review Letters1 on 12 September.

The idea that spin-polarized electrons could transmit their asymmetry to organic molecules is attractive, says Uwe Meierhenrich, an analytical chemist at the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis in France. The tiny effect that Gay and Dreiling observed would have to be amplified to affect the chemistry of life as a whole — but there are known mechanisms for such amplification, he says. “From my point of view, the main question does not concern the amplification processes, but the first chiral-symmetry breaking,” he says.

Meierhenrich says that he would like to see the experiment repeated with chiral molecules that are relevant to the origin of life, such as amino acids, to see whether the left-handed electrons produce the same effect.

Primordial cause
Even if spin-polarized electrons caused life to become chirally selective, it is still unclear what would have produced those electrons in the first place. Sources of β particles include phosphorus-32 decaying into sulphur-32, or the decay of muons, elementary particles produced at the end of a chain of decays that begin when cosmic ray particles hit the atmosphere. In both cases, the electrons would have been travelling much faster than in Gay’s reaction, but he says that it is possible for electrons to slow down without losing their chirality.

Slower-moving, left-handed electrons are produced in other ways than via β decay, says Richard Rosenberg, a chemist at the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois. In 2008 he and his team showed2 that irradiating a layer of magnetized iron with X-rays could also produce a chirality preference. Chirality could therefore also have been created in molecules stuck to magnetized particles in a dust cloud or comet, he says.

Gay and his colleagues plan to look at similar reactions with other varieties of camphor molecules to understand how the spin of an electron dictates which of two chiral molecules it prefers.

The interaction of left-handed electrons with organic molecules is not the only potential explanation for the chiral asymmetry of life.. Meierhenrich favours an alternative — the circularly polarized light that is produced by the scattering of light in the atmosphere and in neutron stars3. In 2011, Meierhenrich and colleages showed4 that such light could transfer its handedness to amino acids.

But even demonstrating how a common physical phenomenon would have favoured left-handed amino acids over right-handed ones would not tell us that this was how life evolved, adds Laurence Barron, a chemist at the University of Glasgow, UK. “There are no clinchers. We may never know.”

Nature doi:10.1038/nature.2014.15995
References

Dreiling, J. M. & Gay, T. J. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 118103 (2014).
Article
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Rosenberg, R. A., Abu Haija, M. & Ryan, P. J. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 178301 (2008).
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Fukue, T. Preprint at arxiv.org/abs/1009.6169 (2010).
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Hodge, L. A. et al Nature 280 250–252 (1979)
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Bonner, W.A. et al Nature 281 150–151 (1979)
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de Marcellus, P. et al ApJ 727 L27 (2011)
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www.nature.com/news/force-of-nature-gave-life-its-asymmetry-1.15995
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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 08:09 #55

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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 08:14 #56

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Yes, yes !

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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 08:21 #57

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http://www.garthmullins.com/2013/03/radio-silence-podcast.html 




No. no ............ & Yes!

This effect makes actual level rod readings too large by:
Curvature of the earth:Effect of Curvature on Readings
The earth appears to “fall away” with distance. The curved shape of the earth means that the level surface through the telescope will depart from the horizontal plane through the telescope as the line of sight proceeds to the horizon.


Atmospheric Refraction:Effect of Refraction
Refraction is largely a function of atmospheric pressure and temperature gradients, which may cause:

the bending to be up or down by extremely variable amounts.

There are basically three types of temperature gradient (dT/dh):

Absorption: occurs mainly at night when the colder ground absorbs heat from the atmosphere.

This causes the atmospheric temperature to increase with distance from the ground and dT/dh > 0.

Emission: occurs mainly during the day when the warmer ground emits heat into the atmosphere, resulting in a negative temperature gradient, i.e. dT/dh < 0.

Equilibrium: no heat transfer takes place (dT/dh = 0) and occurs only briefly in the evening and morning.

The result of dT/dh < 0 is to cause the light ray to be convex to the ground rather than concave as generally shown.

This effect increases the closer to the ground the light ray gets and errors in the region of 5 mm/km have resulted.

The atmosphere refracts the horizontal line of sight downward, making the level rod reading smaller. The typical effect of refraction is equal to about 14% of the effect of earth curvature.
http://www.aboutcivil.org/curvature-and-refraction.html 

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Can antennas go over 100 miles? -- The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 08:25 #58

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As I said don't base everything on your two eyes only because there is much more to prove a point of reality!


Here at Solid Signal we are asked all the time about the antennas that claim to get stations over 150 miles away. Long story short is it's a scam. There isn't an antenna that can actually receive stations from that distance. The reason for this is the curvature of the Earth.

Can antennas go over 100 miles?
Yes, in "optimal conditions”, but it is not typical. In most cases there will be environmental elements that will impede or completely block the delivery of signal to your home at this range.

It is better to try and pull in signals closer to you if available.
http://blog.solidsignal.com/content.php/2466-Can-an-antenna-get-signals-from-150-miles-away 


INTRODUCTION:
RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging. The underlying principles are well known:


Since some objects are capable of reflecting radio waves, it is possible to detect the location and track the movement of those objects by sending out a radio signal and observing the signal's "return" at a receiving station. Usually, we think of radar as being a two-way system that includes the transmitter and receiver in a more-or-less self contained and centralized arrangement. That's the classic combination we're familiar with in tracking aircraft, weather systems, speeding motorists, baseballs, etc.

The term "Passive Radar" refers to an alternative method whereby signals from ordinary radio transmitters, such as those of commercial broadcast stations, are used instead of a dedicated radar transmitter. This has the obvious benefit of saving a substantial amount of money, and it also allows a great deal of flexibility, since signals from transmitters at many different locations and operating on many different frequencies can be called into play for use as the designated radar signal.

Passive radar has received a lot of attention for its advantages in military applications, and many amateur radio astronomers use a variation on the theme to observe meteor activity (more about this in a bit.)

In 2004, Peter Davenport of the National UFO Reporting Center (NUFORC), published a paper entitled:

"USING MULTISTATIC PASSIVE RADAR FOR REAL-TIME DETECTION OF UFO’S IN THE NEAR-EARTH ENVIRONMENT"

The term "multistatic" simply refers to using signals transmitted from multiple fixed locations instead of relying on just one or two transmitters. Davenport proposes a system whereby customized receiving equipment and software would be used to monitor the airwaves and analyze incoming radio signals (specifically, signal reflections from commercial FM broadcast stations) to look for certain unusual behavior patterns that might indicate UFO activity.

An Almost Free DIY Passive Radar System:
As mentioned above, many amateur radio astronomers participate in the hobby of monitoring meteor activity by radio. The principle behind this is that the signal from a distant radio station can "bounce" off the ionized trail of a falling meteorite, and a normally inaudible signal may suddenly be heard for a few brief seconds.

Our goal will be to model a UFO detection system based upon the methods used for observing meteors by radio. The principle is similar, with the premise that UFOs are also capable of reflecting radio waves and therefore can make it possible to receive signals from stations that are ordinarily too distant to be heard.

We should explain that FM radio signals are known to travel in a "line of sight". Unlike radio waves at lower frequencies, such as the AM and Short Wave bands, signals at FM wavelengths will not follow the curvature of the earth, so they generally won't travel more than about 90 miles before zooming straight out over the horizon and off into space. Higher and more directional antennas can increase the range, but 120-150 miles is pretty much the extreme limit for terrestrial point-to-point FM transmission.

In addition to simple reflection, there may - and probably will - be other unusual radio frequency effects that occur due to the presence and movements of UFOs. Having a network of dedicated listeners sharing the details of what they observe, and cross-referencing their data with reports of visual UFO sightings, could go a long way toward establishing a new era of scientific progress in UFO research.
http://www.gobeyondnow.com/passive_radar_ufo_detection.htm 


@ oiram @
Last Edit: 26 Sep 2014 08:31 by Mario.
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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 08:25 #59

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I feel like dancing now ! Thank you !
My third eye finally triggered !

This is reality !

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The Earth is Convex not Concave 26 Sep 2014 08:28 #60

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Give me more Mario ! :yup:

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