The Emperor penguin males migrate during the winter months and fast, they huddle together and look after the eggs which they keep off the ice with their feet, the females return to the ocean during this time and can fish with their night vision during the winter, penguins have good night vision.
Other types of penguin make borrows for their nests but also have night vision for hunting etc during the winter.
1- Where do the males "migrate" to?
2- How many months do they "fast" without eating?
3- Every creature on the planet with "night vision" (cats, owls etc) needs at least a small amount of ambient light to see (think "image intensifier"), and I'm almost certain starlight doesn't provide enough, especially when the penguins are fishing underwater.
PS- Hey, perhaps God created the moon and auroras just to give them some ambient light)..
I'll google to find more and will post any findings here
1- inland 60-100 miles
2- on average 115 days
3- The females migrate to a place where there is at least a small amount of light and hunt during those hours, they can also find marine prey that have bioluminescent ability, there's something about it HERE