See the Virgo Cluster for images of galaxies extending as far as the eye can see, some appear to exist in a swarm around the sub cluster at the core, others are in streamers and wisps of galaxies extending outward until their images are no more than pin points.
In the 1950's when the spectra of deep field galaxies obtained by Edwin Hubble with the two hundred inch telescope on Mount Palomar was subjected to scrutiny, it was found the absorption lines of all the common elements were shifted toward the red end of the spectrum this is called Redshift.
The furthest ones away attested to by their small image width on the photographic plates, all had greater RS than their closer counterparts whose images subtended a greater angle. When space based and adaptive optic instruments extended the visual limit further vastly more distant edge on spiral galaxies recognized as a central bulge with two pointy bits extending about twice as far on the same axis, emerged in the same advanced stages of evolution as the Milky Way or Home Galaxy.
Here RS is approaching twelve which puts the rate of recession well into the super luminal category which means faster than the speed of light, yet they are goin’ about their own business the same as around here. Expand the image for faint blobs of light which are galaxies ever further away in every direction and see them as neurons in the brain of God, which is meant in no evangelical sense it just seems the best way to describe it.
That M31 the relatively nearby Andromeda Galaxy has blue shift is because it is gravitationally bound with the other galaxies in the local group, and is actually moving in closer with the Milky Way.
Both galaxies will expand to become elliptical galaxies and with nearby in the other direction NGC 5128 called Centaurus A which is presently undergoing that process, form a sub cluster typically seen at the heart of larger galaxy clusters.
A BL Lacertae object has no redshift and remains a pinpoint of light on even the deepest fields, is thought to be a tunnel shot of the energy beam from the active nucleus of a quasar].
Those who cackle on about the age of the universe expressed as a percentage of it’s present age say Redshift indicates the universe is expanding after the explosion of a primal atom, that accordingly could only have been located right where good ol’ Earth is today, the Big Bang hypothesis.
Thus viewing a distant galaxy with a redshift of eight whereas between here and there is another galaxy with a RS of four indicating it was speeding toward the more distant place, while from the more distant galaxy our galaxy the Milky Way would similarly have a RS of eight.
So too would the intervening galaxy viewed from the far galaxy have a RS of four, indicating it was speeding toward us at a pretty good clip, it can not be speeding in both directions at once can it now .. when confronted with that the Big Bangers start on about balloons and expanding space.
Forget about balloons .. Hubble was a dictator, the only person other than him who was allowed to look thru the two hundred inch telescope was a mule skinner named Milton Humason. Hubble and Milt cooked up the Expanding Universe theory between the two of them which is just so much hot air.
Assume most spiral galaxies that look the same are roughly the same size, as distance reduces the linear dimension constantly so does redshift increase in proportion. Thus a spiral galaxy that subtends an angle of one degree will be twice as distant as another two degrees wide.
Similarly a galaxy half of one degree wide will be twice as far as the first and four times further than the other .. blue shift is observable in the discs of rotating galaxies thus the light from a distant galaxy will exhibit mean redshift in proportion to its linear distance.
Expanding the image further as rotation brings parts toward us they will be slightly blue shifted back toward the norm, similarly as rotation takes objects away their light will be shifted so slightly even further toward the red part of the spectrum.
The Hubble Space Telescope went into orbit with an incorrectly ground primary mirror. B’s of D’s were invested in building, storing and testing the HST prior to launch and nobody had checked to see if the primary mirror was going to work .. gimme a break.
The images attributed to HST that turn up from time to time are said to be taken by image stabilized multi mirror ground based telescopes .. w3here did the money go, spammers will tell you about what a great asset and what a grand piece of hardware it is, it is not it is a piece of junk, who got the HST money as well and the trillion$ missing from the Pentagon revealed September 10, 2001??